CHAPTER 5 Socialization. Chapter Outline ► Becoming a Social Being ► Nature and Nurture ► The Social Construction of the Self ► Social Environments and.
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Chapter OutlineBecoming a Social BeingNature and NurtureThe Social Construction of the SelfSocial Environments and Early SocializationSocialization through the Life CourseGender Socialization
SocializationSocialization - the ways in which people learn to conform to their societys norms, values, and roles.People develop their own unique personalities as a result of the learning they gain from parents, siblings, relatives, peers, teachers, mentors, and all the other people who influence them throughout their lives.
Becoming a Social BeingPhases of SocializationPrimary - ways the newborn individual is molded into a social being.Secondary - occurs as a child is influenced by adults and peers outside the family.Adult - when a person learns the norms associated with specific adult statuses.
Issues in SocializationThe strength of biological and social influences (nature versus nurture).How a person develops a sense of self.How social environments affect socialization.How gender socialization occurs.
Sigmund FreudFreud claims the personality develops in infancy as the child is forced to control bodily urges.The original, unsocialized urges arise out of the id.The norms, values, and feelings taught through socialization belong to the superego.The ego is ones conception of oneself in relation to others.
The Role of the Same-sex ParentFreud believed the individuals major personality traits are formed in the conflict that occurs when parents insist that the infant control biological urges.This conflict, Freud believed, is most severe between the child and the same-sex parent. To become more attractive to the opposite-sex parent, the infant attempts to imitate the same-sex parent.
BehaviorismBehaviorists believe all behavior is learned.Pavlov demonstrated that conditioned reflexes could be developed.Watson showed that emotions such as fear could also be conditioned.
The Need for LoveStudies of children reared in extreme isolation suggest that lack of parental attention can result in retardation and early death.
Primate psychologist Harry Harlow showed that infant monkeys reared apart from other monkeys never learned how to interact with other monkeys.
The Debate over Genetic InfluencesThe role of genes in shaping traits such as intelligence and sexual orientation is a subject of continual research and controversy. There isnt any definitive evidence that specific genes determine these aspects of human behavior.
Genes And IntelligenceIn an influential but scientifically flawed study titled The Bell Curve, biologist Richard Herrnstein and social psychologist Charles Murray attempted to show that IQ is an inherited trait that underlies inequality among different groups in the United States. Herrnstein and Murray do not believe efforts to address educational inequalities will address growing inequalities among individuals and groups.
Genes and IntelligenceMost social scientists oppose Herrnstein and Murrays conclusions, for several reasons:There has been much criticism of IQ as a single measure of intelligence. There is evidence of cultural and middle-class biases in the questions used to test IQ.The authors of The Bell Curve have been criticized for asserting that correlation is the same as causality.
Seven Types of IntelligenceVisual/spatial intelligence
Seven Types of IntelligenceInterpersonal intelligenceAbility to perceive other peoples emotions and motivations.Intrapersonal intelligenceAbility to understand ones own emotions and motivations.Bodily/kinesthetic intelligenceSometimes thought of in popular speech as physical coordination or natural athletic ability.
Defining the Cognitive ClassesCaution: The labels imposed on this IQ curve and the score used as boundaries between cognitive classes are those of Herrnstein and Murray and do not represent the thinking of many other social scientists.
Sociological Research Most sociological research will focus on the following hypotheses:The social environment can unleash or stifle human potential.The social environment presents an ever-changing array of roles and expectations.
The Looking Glass SelfCharles Horton Cooley defined the looking glass self as the reflection of our self that we think we see in the behaviors of others around us.This insight into the role of others in defining the self was the foundation for the view of the self proposed by George Herbert Mead.
George Herbert MeadMead claims role-taking - the ability to look at social situations from the view of another person develops in three stages: PreparatoryGame Play
Stages in Meads Role Taking
StageDescriptionExamplePreparatoryThe child mimics significant people.Toddler wears moms shoes.PlayChildren pretend to be significant people.Playing house. GameSymbolically, each child can become other participants.Neighborhood kids play baseball.
Goffmans Face WorkSociologist Erving Goffman identified rules of interaction whereby people seek to present a positive image of themselves, their face. Face is the positive social value a person claims for herself or himself by acting out socially approved attributes.Once they have established an image, they seek to defend it against any possible threat that might cause them to lose face.
Theories of Socialization
TheoristDescriptionFreudSocialization forces the infant to channel biological urges into socially acceptable behavior. George Herbert MeadThe self emerges out of interaction with others.
Theories of Socialization
TheoristTheoryJean PiagetChildren develop awareness of moral issues at an early age but cannot deal with moral ambiguities until they mature further. Erik EriksonThroughout the life course, the individual must resolve a series of conflicts that shape the persons sense of self and ability to perform social roles successfully.
Theories of Socialization
TheoristTheoryCarol GilliganChildren tend to develop different ways of resolving moral dilemmas. Some rely on strict rules of right and wrong, while others tend to make judgments based on fairness and cooperation.
Early SocializationIn the early decades of the 20th century, when children worked in textile mills and coal mines, the environment in which they were socialized forced them to take on adult roles at an early age.
Agents of SocializationFamily - primary agent of socialization.Schools - most important agent outside the family. Religion - involved in socialization in different ways throughout an individuals lifetime.Peer groups - the dominant agent in middle and late adulthood.Mass Media - most controversial agent in American society.
Socialization Through the Life CourseA persons core identity does not change easily later in life.The roles people play during their life can be influenced by:Social changeChanges in a societys cultureImpact of new friendsOccupational mobility
Eriksons View of Lifelong Socialization
Stage of LifeConflictInfancyTrust vs. mistrustEarly ChildhoodAutonomy vs. shamePlay AgeInitiative vs. guiltSchool AgeIndustry vs. inferiority
Eriksons View of Lifelong Socialization
Stage of LifeConflictAdolescenceIdentity vs. confusion; struggle over fidelity to parents or friendsEarly AdulthoodIntimacy vs. isolation in the quest for loveAdulthoodGenerativity vs. stagnation in interpersonal relationshipsOld AgeIntegrity vs. despair
Gender SocializationThe ways we learn our gender identity and develop according to cultural norms of masculinity or femininity.Gender identity is an individuals own feeling of whether she or he is a woman or a man, a girl or a boy.
1. Which statement about the socialization process is not true?It is continuous throughout life.It enables us to function within groups.Socialization helps to construct our identities.Variations in how people are socialized are largely due to heredity.
Answer: d The following statement about the socialization process is not true:Variations in how people are socialized are largely due to heredity.
2. According to Freud, the aspect of the self first to emerge is theidegosuperegosignificant other
Answer: a According to Freud, the aspect of the self first to emerge is the id.
3. Although Donny does not have a handicap, he parked his car in a handicapped slot very close to the building he was to visit because he knew he would not be ticketedthe meter patrol shift had already left for home for the day. According to Kohlberg, Donny is in which stage of moral development?conventionalpreconventionalnonconventionalpostconventional
Answer: bAlthough Donny does not have a handicap, he parked his car in a handicapped slot very close to the building he was to visit because he knew he would not be ticketedthe meter patrol shift had already left for home for the day. According to Kohlberg, Donny is in the preconventional stage of moral development.