distillation column level

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Distillation Column with level as variable

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  • 1. DISTILLATION COLUMN WITH LEVEL AS VARIABLE Name ID Num LAW CHOON CHUAN EC10103 NATASHA EMLYN ANAK DADI EC10002 WAN NUR AF'ZAM BINTI WAN ABD RAZAB EC10095 CHAN HWEE GEEM EC10047 TEOH SHIN YEE EA10051

2. INTRODUCTION Distillation is a process that separates two or more components into an overhead distillate and a bottoms product. The bottoms product is almost exclusively liquid, while the distillate may be liquid or a vapor or both. 3. The separation process requires three things. 1) second phase must be formed so that both liquid and vapour phases are present and can contact each other on each stage within a separation column. 2) components have different volatilities so that they will partition between the two phases to a different extent. 3) two phases can be separated by gravity or other mechanical means. 4. CHALLENGE FOR DISTILLATION COLUMN Inaccurate liquid level indication - causes many expensive operating problems. - high liquid levels damage equipment. 5. P&I DRAWING OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 6. SPECIFICATIONS OF TRANSDUCERS Measuring principle of level transducers: 1. Radar 2. Guided Wave Radar 3. Ultrasonic 4. Capacitive 5. Hydrostatic 6. Radiation-based 7. Vibration 8. Conductive 7. LEVEL CONTROL There will be two level loops on a distillation column as: the column base level must be maintained at an acceptable value. the reflux drum level must be maintained at an acceptable value. 8. 1. Radar Vegapuls 62 for level measurement of liquids under difficult conditions Specs Details Measuring Range up to 35 m Process fitting thread from G1, 1 NPT flanges from DN 50, 2" Process temperature -200 +450 C Process pressure -1 +160 bar (-100+16000 kPa Accuracy +/- 2 mm SIL qualification Optionally up to SIL2 9. 2. Guided Wave Radar Vegaflex 86 for continuous level and interface measurement of liquids Specs Details Version exchangeable cable probe ( 2 mm, 4 mm) exchangeable rod probe ( 16 mm) coax probe ( 42 mm) Measuring Range cable probe up to 75 m rod probe up to 6 m coax probe up to 6 m Process fitting thread from G1 , 1 NPT flanges from DN 50, 2" Process temperature -196 +450 C Process pressure -1 +400 bar (-100 +40000 kPa) Accuracy +/- 2 mm 10. 3. Ultrasonic Vegason 61 ultrasonic sensor for continuous level measurement Specs Details Measuring Range in liquids: 0.25 5 m in bulk solids: 0.25 2 m Process fitting thread G1, 1 NPT Process temperature -40 +80 C Process pressure -0,2 +2 bar (-20 +200 kPa Accuracy +/- 10 mm SIL qualification optionally up to SIL2 11. 4. Capacitive Vegacal 62 capacitive rod electrode for continuous level measurement Specs Details Version partly insulated rod Measuring Range up to 6 m Process fitting thread from G, NPT flanges from DN 25, 1" Materials steel, 316L, PTFE Process temperature -50 +200 C Process pressure -1 +64 bar (-100 +6400 kPa) SIL qualification optionally up to SIL2 12. 5. Hydrostatic Vegawell 52 suspension pressure transmitter for continuous level measurement of liquids Specs Details Measuring cell CERTEC Sensor diameter rom 22 mm Measuring range 0 +60 bar (0 +6000 kPa Process temperature -20 +80 C Deviation in characteristics 0.2 %; 0.1 % 13. 6. Radiation-based Fibertrac 31 for continuous measurement of liquids and bulk solids Specs Details Version partly insulated rod Measuring Range up to 6 m Process fitting thread from G, NPT flanges from DN 25, 1" Materials steel, 316L, PTFE SIL qualification optionally up to SIL2 14. 7. Vibration Vegaswing 61 vibrating level switch for liquids Specs Details Materials 316L, Hastelloy, ECTFE, PFA, enamel Process fitting thread from G, NPT flanges from DN 25, 1" hygienic fitting Process temperature -50 +250 C Process pressure -1 +64 bar (-100 +6400 kPa) SIL qualification optionally up to SIL2 15. 8. Conductive Vegakon 66 conductive multiple rod level switch Specs Details Version compact level switch Probe length up to 4 m Process fitting thread G1 Materials PPN Process temperature -40 +100 C Process pressure -1 +6 bar (-100 +600 kPa) 16. COMPARISON BETWEEN EACH TYPES OF TRANSDUCERS Type of transducers Comparison Vegapuls 62 (Radar) Both radar signals and microwaves travel at the speed of light but for radar, frequency is from 88 to 108 MHz, Vegaflex 86 (Guided Wave Radar) microwaves range from 1-300 GHz Vegason 61 (Ultrasonic) have limited of range with low temperature limitation Vegacal 62 (Capacitive) have problem with electrode rod where gas produce from distillation might affect measurement Vegawell 52 (Hydrostatic) have problem with temperature limitation Fibertrac 31 (Radiation-based) they require a gamma radiation source and are relatively expensive Vegaswing 61 (Vibration) hard to measure due to measure target is gas Vegakon 66 (Conductive) has limitation in temperature 17. REASONS OF CHOOSING GUIDED WAVE RADAR FOR OUR PROCESS PLANT The VEGAFLEX 86 level sensor measures maintenance-free all liquids under extreme pressure and temperature conditions. Even in applications with build-up, foam generation and condensation, the sensor delivers precise and reliable measured values. In saturated steam applications, a special reference probe ensures a density-independent measurement. offers an economical level and interface measurement for your application. The guided microwave enables a simple, time-saving and reliable setup 18. REASONS OF CHOOSING COLUMN PRESSURE WITH VEGABAR 51 The VEGABAR 51 pressure transmitter with its wide temperature range is particularly suited for this application even extreme temperature fluctuations during the start-up phase in the column do not affect the transmitter. The sensor version with isolator can even be implemented in temperatures up to 752 F (400 C). Reliable measurement independent of foam generation and tank installations 19. REASONS OF CHOOSING ORIFICE METER TECHNOLOGY FOR FLOW CONTROL Measures a wide range of flow rates Inexpensive when compared to many other flow meters Accurate 20. REASONS OF CHOOSING RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR (RTD) SENSOR FOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT high accuracy is required in the range of 400K. Since accuracy is required, a thermocouple is not recommended. Since the temperature range is outside the region for a thermistor, an RTD sensor is recommended. Since there are a number of temperature measurements to be made, like in a distillation column, having a temperature instrument for every point can be cost prohibitive. Thus, high density temperature transmitters such as RTD must be used. 21. MANIPULATED VARIABLES AND CONTROLLED VARIABLES OF A DISTILLATION COLUMN No Controlled Variables Manipulated Variables Control Valve 1 Column pressure Condenser duty Coolant flow V1 2 Concentration (temperature) of distillate Reflux flow rate Reflux flow V2 3 Liquid level in the reflux drum Distillate flow rate Distillate flow V3 4 Concentration (temperature) of bottoms Re-boiler duty Heat flow V4 5 Liquid level in the column base Bottoms flow rate Bottom flow V5 22. Q & A SESSION 23. THE END THANK YOU