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  • DOCUMENT RESUME

    ED 426 070 TM 029 292

    AUTHOR Stecher, Brian M.; Barron, Sheila; Kaganoff, Tessa; Goodwin,Joy

    TITLE The Effects of Standards-Based Assessment on ClassroomPractices: Results of the 1996-97 RAND Survey of KentuckyTeachers of Mathematics and Writing.

    INSTITUTION California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study ofEvaluation.; Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards,and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA.

    SPONS AGENCY Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED),Washington, DC.

    REPORT NO CSE-TR-482PUB DATE 1998-05-00NOTE 93p.; In collaboration with University of Colorado at

    Boulder, Stanford University, the RAND Corporation,University of California, Santa Barbara, University ofSouthern California, Educational Testing Service, andUniversity of Pittsburgh. For other reports in this series,see TM 029 287 and TM 029 289-293.

    CONTRACT R305B60002PUB TYPE Reports Research (143)EDRS PRICE MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.DESCRIPTORS Academic Achievement; *Academic Standards; *Curriculum

    Development; Educational Assessment; Educational Change;Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; StatePrograms; Tables (Data) ; Teacher Surveys; *Teachers;Teaching Methods; *Testing Programs

    IDENTIFIERS Kentucky Education Reform Act 1990; *Kentucky InstructionalResults Information System

    ABSTRACTThis report is part of a multi-year project to examine the

    effects of standards-based assessment reform on schools and classrooms.During the past year, the project investigated school and classroom effectsof assessment reforms in the state of Kentucky, a state that has been at theforefront of the standards-based assessment movement. This report presentsthe results of a series of surveys of the impact of the KentuckyInstructional Results Information System (KIRIS) on curriculum andinstruction in mathematics in grades 5 and 8 and in writing in grades 4 and7. Teachers' self-reports (n=approximately 400) indicated substantial changesin classroom practices in response to the Kentucky Education Reform Act andKIRIS. KIRIS, in particular, has had a major influence on instructionalbehavior according to teachers. However, there were no consistentassociations between reports of specific teaching practices or changes inpractice during the past 3 years and biennial KIRIS gains. (Contains 2figures, 31 tables, and 15 references.) (Author/SLD)

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    EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIONCENTER (ERIC)

    ErIlus document has been reproduced asreceived from the person or organizationoriginating it

    0 Minor changes have been made toimprove reproduction quality

    Points of view or opinions stated in thisdocument do not necessarily representofficial OERI position or policy

    The Effects of Standards-Based Assessmenton Classroom Practices:

    Results of the 1996-97 RAND Surveyof Kentucky Teachers of Mathematics and Writing

    CSE Technical Report 482

    Brian M. Stecher, Sheila Barron,Tessa Kaganoff, and Joy Goodwin

    National Center for Research on Evaluation,Standards and Student Testing (CRESST)

    RAND Education

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    UCLA Center for the Study of Evaluation

    In CollaboratIon With

    ; UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER SIANFORD UNIVERSITY THE RAND CORPORATION

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA BARBARA UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EDUCATIONAL TESTING SER;ICE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

    BEST COPY AVAILABL

  • The Effects of Standards-Based Assessmenton Classroom Practices:

    Results of the 1996-97 RAND Surveyof Kentucky Teachers of Mathematics and Writing

    CSE Technical Report 482

    Brian M. Stecher, Sheila Barron,Tessa Kaganoff, and Joy Goodwin

    National Center for Research on Evaluation,Standards and Student Testing (CRESST)

    RAND Education

    May 1998

    Center for the Study of EvaluationNational Center for Research on Evaluation,

    Standards, and Student TestingGraduate School of Education & Information Studies

    University of California, Los AngelesLos Angeles, CA 90095-1522

    (310) 206-1532

  • The work reported herein was supported under Education Research and DevelopmentCenter Program, PR Award Number R305B60002, as administered by the Office ofEducational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education.

    The findings and opinions expressed in this report do not reflect the positions or policies ofthe National Institute on Student Achievement, Curriculum, and Assessment, the Office ofEducational Research and Improvement, or the U.S. Department of Education.

    4

  • THE EFFECTS OF STANDARDS-BASED ASSESSMENT ON CLASSROOMPRACTICES: RESULTS OF THE 1996-97 RAND SURVEY OF KENTUCKY

    TEACHERS OF MATHEMATICS AND WRITING'

    Brian M. Stecher, Sheila Barron, Tessa Kaganoff, and Joy Goodwin

    National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standardsand Student Testing (CRESST)

    RAND Education

    ABSTRACT

    This report is part of a multi-year project to examine the effects of standards-basedassessment reform cn schools and classrooms. During the past year, the projectinvestigated school and classroom effects of assessment reforms in the state ofKentucky, a state that has been .at the forefront of the standards-based assessmentmovement. This report presents the results of a series of surveys of the impact of theKentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS) on curriculum andinstruction in mathematics in grades 5 and 8 and in writing in grades 4 and 7. Teachers'self-reports indicated substantial changes in classroom practices in response to KERAand KIRIS. KIRIS, in particular, has had a major influence on instructional behavioraccording to teachers. However, there were no consistent associations between reports ofspecific teaching practices or changes in practice during the past three years andbiennial KIRIS gains.

    1 This project would not have been possible without encouragement and assistance from the stafffrom the Kentucky Department of Education and cooperation from teachers across the state. Inparticular, we want to acicnowledge the support of Edward Reidy, Deputy Commissioner, and stafffrom the Kentucky Department of Education, including Brian Gong, Sire Righey, Starr Lewis, JoanneMosier, and Jonathan Dings. In addition, we received helpful suggestions from a number of Kentucky,regional resource teachers, who were promised anonymity, and from hundreds of Kentuckyclassroom teachers, who took the time to complete our surveys.

    Our RAND colleagues Kathy Rosenblatt, Suzanne Perry, and Linda Daly deserve credit forcoordinating the statewide survey effort, including production, distribution, monitoring, review,and data editing.

    1

  • BACKGROUND

    Focus of the Research

    In the past few years, there have been important changes in the nature ofstate assessment program. These changes include the introduction of moreperformance assessments (including open-response written measures, hands-ontasks, and cumulative portfolios), the alignment of assessments with statestandards, and the use of assessment systems for school accountability purposes.Various reasons are cited for these changes. For example, proponents ofperformance assessments believe that "authentic" measures will lead to moreeffective instructional practices and will foster children's conceptualunderstanding (e.g., Resnick & Resnick, 1992; Stiggins, 1991; Wiggens, 1989). Thealignment of assessments with state standards is intended to promote improvedclassroom practice and to provide data for school improvement (Bond, 1994).The implementation of high-stakes accountability systems is supposed toincrease attention to performance standards and student outcomes and createmechanisms to change ineffective practices.

    Most recent research on large-scale assessment has focused on the quality ofscores and their appropriateness for accountability purposes. There has been verylittle research the effects of standards-based assessments on classroom practices.States and districts that change their assessment systems in one or more of theseways usually rely upon schools and teachers to translate the larger goals intopractice. Little attention has been given to the processes through which schoolsimplement and support assessment-based change and teachers adapt theclassroom instructional environment to accommodate new curriculumstandards and broadened achievement expectations.

    This is the first report from a multi-year project investigating theconsequences of standards-based assessment reform at the school and classroomlevels. The project is designed to address two broad questions: (1) What are theeffects of recent statewide assessment reforms on school structures, classroompractices, and' teachers' and studerits' uriderstandirigs- of asS-essthent? (2) Whichpractices are associated with improvements in assessment results? Informationabout these processes is crucial to understanding why reform succeeds in someschools and falls short of expectations in others. During the past year, the projectinvestigated teachers' classroom responses to assessment reforms in the state of

    2

  • Kentucky. Kentucky was selected for s