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Mini Project Report on Dove Shampoo
RESHMA M NATHUnder the guidance of Dr. K. Gopalakrishnan Nair
Department of Business Administration College of Engineering, Trivandrum
Department of Business Administration
College of Engineering, Trivandrum 2011
Certified that this Mini Project Report titled Dove Shampoo is a bonafide record work done by RESHMA M NATH in this department as part Of second semester, MBA in the Department of Business Administration, College of Engineering, Trivandrum.
Dr. K. GOPALAKRISHNAN NAIR Department of Business Administration College of Engineering Trivandrum
Prof S. SIVAKUMAR Head of Department Department of Business Administration College of Engineering Trivandrum
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am extremely grateful and thankful to Dr. K. Gopalakrishnan Nair for his valuable guidance for helping me complete this Prowess report. I also show my immense gratitude to Prof. S. Sivakumar the Head of Department for all the help he has given me in doing the report. I thank my colleagues also for their support and cooperation they gave me for completing this report. I also thank God from the bottom of my heart for being with me complete this report successfully.
Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable. Even though most modern shampoos include a conditioning component, shampooing is frequently followed by the use of conditioners which ease combing and styling. The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindi chmpo and dates to 1762. The Hindi word referred to head massage, usually with some form of hair oil.Similar words also occur in other North Indian languages. The word and the service of head massage were introduced to Britain by a Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed. Dean Mahomed introduced the practice to Basil Cochrane's vapour baths while working there in London in the early 19th century, and later, together with his Irish wife, opened "Mahomed's Steam and Vapour Sea Water Medicated Baths" in Brighton, England. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of champi (shampooing), meaning therapeutic massage. He was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to both George IV and William IV. In the 1860s, the meaning of the word shifted from the sense of massage to that of applying soap to the hair. Earlier, ordinary soap had been used for washing hair.However, the dull film soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable, irritating, and unhealthy looking. During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. A 1914 ad for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake; magazine ads in 1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo. Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing the same naturally-derived surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo with synthetic surfactants.
CompositionShampoo is generally made by combining a surfactant, most often sodium lauryl sulfate and/or sodium laureth sulfate with a co-surfactant, most often cocamidopropyl betaine in water to form a thick, viscous liquid. Other essential ingredients include salt (sodium chloride), which is used to adjust the viscosity, a preservative and fragrance. Other ingredients are generally included in shampoo formulations to maximize the following qualities:
Pleasing foam Easy rinsing Minimal skin/eye irritation Feels thick and/or creamy Pleasant fragrance Low toxicity Good biodegradability Slightly acidic (pH less than 7), since a basic environment weakens the hair by breaking the disulfide bonds in hair keratin. No damage to hair
Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, e.g. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. Many shampoos also include silicone to provide conditioning benefits.
Commonly used ingredients
Ammonium lauryl sulfate Ammonium chloride Glycol Sodium laureth sulfate is derived from coconut oils and is used to soften water and create a lather. There was some concern over this particular ingredient circa 1998 about this chemical being a carcinogen, but that has been disproved. Sodium lauryl sulfate Sodium Lauroamphoacetate is naturally derived from coconut oils and is used as a cleanser and counter-irritant. This is the ingredient that makes the product tear-free.
Polysorbate 20 abreviated PEG(20) is a mild glycol based surfactant that is used to solubilize fragrance oils and essential oils; meaning it causes liquid to spread across and penetrate the surface of a solid (i.e. your hair). Polysorbate 80 abreviated PEG(80) is a glycol used to emulsify (or disperse) oils in water (so the oils dont float on top like Italian salad dressing). PEG-150 Distearate is a simple thickener. Citric Acid is naturally derived from citrus fruits and is used as an antioxidant to preserve the oils in the product. While it is a severe eyeirritant, the Sodium Lauroamphoacetate counteracts that property. Citric acid is used to adjust the pH down to approximately 5.5. It is a fairly weak acid which makes the adjustment easier. Shampoos usually are at pH 5.5 because at slightly acidic pH the scales on a hair follicle lay flat making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. it also has a small amount of preservative action. Citric acid as opposed to any other acid will prevent bacterial growth. Quaternium-15 is used as a bacterial/fungicidal preservative. Polyquaternium-10 is a totally different chemical than Quaternium-15. This chemical acts as the conditioning ingredient, providing moisture and fullness to the hair. Di-PPG-2 myreth-10 adipate is a water-dispersible emollient that forms clear solutions with surfactant systems.
Shampoos are of the following types: Powder Shampoo Liquid Shampoo Lotion Shampoo Cream Shampoo Jelly Shampoo Aerosol Shampoo Specialized Shampoo Conditioning Shampoo Anti- dandruff Shampoo Baby Shampoo Two Layer Shampoo
Shampoo Industry in India:
Indians have evolved from the champi times, wherein hair oil was considered to be the only product meant for hair care. Today, there are a plethora of options available from shampoos and conditioners to hair dyes and post wash products. In this article we focus on the shampoo segment, which is considered to be one of the fastest growing segment in the hair care industry. The India shampoo industry is estimated at Rs 14 bn and is growing at an average rate of 20% per annum. According to AC Nielsen, shampoo is one of the fastest growing categories within FMCG sector and is expected to grow at 25% per annum in the coming years. Segmentation: The shampoo industry is segmented on benefit platforms: cosmetic (shine, health and strength), anti dandruff (AD) and herbal. 20% of the total shampoo market is accounted by the AD shampoos. The AD segment is the fastest growing segment, growing at 10% to 12 % every year Usage: The frequency of shampoo usage is very low in India. Most consumers use shampoo only once or twice in a week. In many cases, these products are used on special occasions such as weddings, parties etc. About 50% of consumers use ordinary toilet soaps to wash their hair. About 15% of consumers use toilet soaps as well as shampoo for cleaning their hair. Also 70% of the total shampoo sales are through sachet sales. HLL has higher stakes in the rural market with an 80% share. The bottle sales are popular in the northern region where 50% of the shampoo bottles are sold. From a penetration level of 13% in 2000, now almost a third of the country's rural population uses shampoo with penetration levels zooming to 32% in 2005. While the north and west zones have tripled in penetration, the south and east zones have doubled during the period between the years 2000 to 2005 After a sober growth in 2004 due to the downturn of the FMCG sector, shampoo sector saw strong growth in the next two years due to the introduction of sachets and a surge in rural demand. The overall shampoo market, which sees annual volume sales of approximately 63,000 tonnes, saw rural offtake grow by 40% last year, while urban demand grew half that at 21%. India is and will remain for some time one of the youngest countries in the world. Currently there is a population of 163 m teen in India. Approximately half of the 1 bn plus population is under the age of 20, which is one of the largest consumer of hair care products. This provides huge market for the shampoo players. Also, with
the increasing income levels of the middle class population, the usage of shampoos has increased. Despite its undisputed potential, the rapid expansion of the shampoo market was interrupted in 1999. Overall growth rates in the market slowed to 1.7% in 1999, from 16% the previous year. Lack of innovation was the major reason for slowdown. The perception that shampoos contain harsh chemicals that could damage hair, high price and the view that the shampoo is more of a glamour product rather than a hygiene product led to lower sales. The players came out with the idea of smaller packs, which were a success. Al