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Eclipse 100 Describtion

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    rivateGRID Section

    This slide does not appear in the manual

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    Purpose of the GRID section

    The Grid section contains the properties used to calculate

    pore volume & transmissibility

    ECLIPSE uses cell pore volume and transmissibility to

    calculate flows from cell to cell

    ),,(

    ),,(

    L

    NTGAK

    T

    ),,(

    z)y,(x,

    zyx

    zyxzyx

    =NTGVPV cell =

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    Minimum GRID Section

    Required Properties for each cell in the model:

    Geometry

    Cell dimensions & depths

    Properties

    Porosity

    Permeability

    (Net-to-gross or net thicknessif not included, ECLIPSEassumes equal to 1)

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    Types of Grids Supported

    Block CenteredCorner Point

    Radial

    Cartesian

    1

    Unstructured (PEBI)

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    Block-Centered vs Corner Point: Geometry

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    Block-Centered Corner PointZCORN keywordspecifies the height

    of all corners of all

    cells

    COORD keyword

    specifies the X,Y,Z ofthe lines that define

    the corner of all cells

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    x

    (10,1,1)

    (11,1,1)

    TOPS keyword specifies the

    upper face depthDX keyword specifies the

    thickness of the cells in the I

    direction

    DY keyword specifies the

    thickness of the cells in the Jdirection

    DZ keyword specifies the

    thickness of the cells in theK direction

    Note: DXV, DYV, DZV are alternate forms

    (10,1,1)

    (11,1,1)

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    (11,1,1)(11,1,1)

    Block-Centered vs Corner Point: Transmissibility

    Flow from cell can flow to cell(s)

    Block-Centered Corner Point

    2

    Cell connections are by

    logicalorder:

    (11,1,1) (11,1,2) & (10,1,1)

    Cell connections are by

    geometricposition:

    (11,1,1) (11,1,2), (10,1,2)partial & (10,1,3)

    (10,1,1) (10,1,1)

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    Block-centered vs Corner point: Summary

    Block-centered

    Cell description is simple

    Pre-processor is not required

    Geometry data is small

    Geologic structures are modelledsimplistically

    Pinchouts & unconformities are

    difficult to modelIncorrect cell connections

    across faults (user must modify

    transmissibility)

    Corner Point

    Cell description can be complex

    Pre-processor is required

    Geometry data is voluminous

    Geologic structures can bemodelled accurately

    Pinchouts & unconformities can

    be modelled accuratelyLayer contiguity across fault

    planes is accurately modelled

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    Radial vs Cartesian Keywords

    Block-centered Corner Point

    Cartesian Radial Cartesian Radial

    NX, NY, NZ NR, NTHETA, NZ NX, NY, NZ NR, NTHETA, NZ

    DX, DY, DZ (orD*V form)

    DR (INRAD &OUTRAD),

    DTHETA, DZ (orD*V form)

    COORD, ZCORN COORD, ZCORN

    PERMX, -Y, -Z PERMR, -THT, -Z PERMX, -Y, -Z PERMR, -THT, -Z

    MULTX, etc MULTR, etc MULTX, etc MULTR, etc

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    Grid Cell Property Definition

    Cell propertiessuch as PORO,PERMX,PERMY,

    PERMZ, NTGare averagesdefined at thecentre

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    Cartesian Data Reading Convention

    Cell data is read with i cycling fastest, followed by j then k

    i increasing

    j increasing

    k increasing

    (12,4,1)

    1

    (1,1,1)

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    Radial Data Reading Convention

    Cell data is read with R cycling fastest, followed by then k

    k increasing increasing

    R increasing

    (4,3,1)

    1

    (1,1,1)

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    Unstructured grids do not have row-column type

    organization

    ECLIPSE requires this information, so cells are assignedI,J,K values by FloGrid

    Unstructured Grid Reading Convention

    (2,4,1)(8,19,1)

    Use a post-processor to modify a PEBI grid!

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    Inactive Cells

    Avoid simulating fluid flow in unimportant cells

    ACTNUM explicitly set each cells behaviour

    0 indicates the cell is inactive

    1 indicates the cell is active

    MINPV indicate a minimum pore volume for a cell to be activePINCH indicate a minimum thickness for a cell to be active

    ECLIPSE will automatically inactivate any cell with zero pore volume

    Note: FloViz & FloGrid are normally defaulted to show active cells only

    (Scene | Grid | Show | Inactive cells)

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    Cell Property Definition Rules

    One property per cell (NX*NY*NZ)

    Values must be defined for inactive cells too

    Explicit values only

    ECLIPSE has no facilities for entering data as a function

    FloGrid, Office, FloViz have property calculators

    Define the property with the pre-processor

    Export the property as a text file (*.grdecl) Use the INCLUDE keyword

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    Input Examples

    --NX = 5, NY = 3, NZ = 4

    NTG

    1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

    1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

    1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

    15*0.40

    15*0.95

    15*0.85 /

    EQUALS

    'PORO ' 0.250 /

    'PERMX' 45 /

    'PERMX' 10 1 5 1 3 2 2 /

    'PERMX' 588 1 5 1 3 3 3 /

    /

    BOX

    1 3 1 3 1 1 /

    PORO

    9*0.28 /

    PERMX

    100 80 85 83 99 110 92 91 84 /

    ENDBOX

    COPY

    'PERMX' 'PERMY' /

    'PERMX' 'PERMZ' /

    /

    MULTIPLY

    'PERMZ' 0.05 /

    /

    2

    Specify each value

    Specify similar values

    with the *

    BOX example

    This would overwrite

    PORO & PERMX

    specified previously

    EQUALS exampleApplies to whole grid

    Applies to cells specified

    COPY example

    MULTIPLY example

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    Cell Property Definition using Petrel

    The properties are assigned to each cell during upscaling &

    exported to a file

    The INCLUDE keyword is used to load the properties from

    Petrel:

    INCLUDE

    grainne_props.grdecl /

    grainne_props.grdecl

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    Local Grid Refinement

    Allows high grid resolution in an area of interest while keeping a

    low resolution elsewhere.

    Typical applications:

    Near well pressure changes

    Coning and cusping

    Condensate dropout

    Areas of high well densityFields sharing a common aquifer

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    CARFIN

    --Name I1 I2 J1 J2 K1 K2 NX NY NZ Wells

    LGR1 2 4 2 7 1 1 6 18 1 1 /

    CARFIN

    --Name I1 I2 J1 J2 K1 K2 NX NY NZ Wells

    LGR1 2 4 2 7 1 1 6 18 1 1 /

    CARFIN

    --Name I1 I2 J1 J2 K1 K2 NX NY NZ Wells

    LGR1 2 4 2 7 1 1 6 18 1 1 /

    Introducing a Cartesian LGR

    1) Choose global cells to refine

    2) Decide on LGR size

    3) Insert CARFIN, update LGR in

    RUNSPEC

    I t d i R di l LGR

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    Introducing a Radial LGR

    1) Choose global cells to refine

    Single vertical column OR

    2 x 2 vertical column (E100 only)

    2) Decide on LGR size

    Inner radius and outer radius (optional)

    Limited choice for NTHETA: Single column -> 1 or 4

    2 x 2 column -> 4 or 8

    3) Insert RADFIN (or RADFIN4), INRAD, OUTRAD (optional) andupdate LGR in RUNSPEC

    R di l LGR E l

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    Radial LGR Examples

    A single vertical column of cellsRADFIN

    --Name I J K1 K2 NR NTHETA NZ Wells

    RAD1 2 2 1 1 4 1 1 1 /

    INRAD

    0.507 /

    R di l LGR E l

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    A 2 x 2 vertical column of cells (E100 only)RADFIN4

    --Name I1 I2 J1 J2 K1 K2 NR NTHETA NZ Wells

    RAD4 4 5 4 5 1 1 6 8 1 1 /

    INRAD

    0.507 /

    OUTRAD

    9.0 /

    Radial LGR Examples

    Adj ti th i f LGR

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    Adjusting the size of LGRs

    To