finch 2015

Download Finch 2015

Post on 07-Dec-2015

11 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

fin

TRANSCRIPT

  • ???????????????????

    ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

    ????????????????????????????????

    ???? ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ??????????

    ????????????? Appetite

    ?????????????? ??????????????????????????? ????????????????????????? ????????????

    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

    ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

  • MAN

    USCR

    IPT

    ACCE

    PTED

    ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

    Comfort Eating, Psychological Stress, and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    Laura E. Finch and A. Janet Tomiyama

    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles

    For submission in Appetite

    Author Note

    Correspondence should be addressed to A. Janet Tomiyama, UCLA Department of

    Psychology, 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563 or

    tomiyama@psych.ucla.edu.

  • MAN

    USCR

    IPT

    ACCE

    PTED

    ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

    Acknowledgments This manuscript was prepared using NGHS data obtained from the

    NHLBI and does not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of the NGHS or the NHLBI. This

    research was supported by a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship

    awarded to Laura E. Finch. The authors gratefully acknowledge comments on versions of this

    manuscript from Drs. Julienne Bower and Eli Puterman as well as from Britt Ahlstrom, Angela

    Incollingo Belsky, Chloe Boyle, Alyssa Cheadle, Jessica Chiang, Jenna Cummings, Larissa

    Dooley, Alexandra Dupont, Patricia Moreno, Elizabeth Raposa, and Joshua Wiley.

  • MAN

    USCR

    IPT

    ACCE

    PTED

    ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTRunning head: COMFORT EATING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS 1

    Comfort Eating, Psychological Stress, and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women

    For submission in Appetite

  • MAN

    USCR

    IPT

    ACCE

    PTED

    ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTCOMFORT EATING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS 2

    Abstract (1,497/1,500 characters) Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2,379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating. Keywords: Comfort eating; Stress; Adverse life events; Emotional eating; Depressive symptoms

  • MAN

    USCR

    IPT

    ACCE

    PTED

    ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTCOMFORT EATING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS 3

    Comfort Eating, Psychological Stress, and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adult Women A majority of Americans report experiencing moderate or high levels of stress (American

    Psychological Association, 2015), and chronic life stress is associated with greater engagement in comfort eating, or the consumption of high-fat, high-sugar, or high-calorie comfort food with a concurrent emotional state (Torres & Nowson, 2007). Laboratory-induced acute psychological stressors have been shown to increase food intake (Epel, Lapidus, McEwen, & Brownell, 2001; Rutters, Nieuwenhuizen, Lemmens, Born, & Westerterp-Plantenga, 2009), and naturally-occurring stressful events (e.g., academic exams in student populations) have also been associated with comfort eating (Michaud et al., 1990; Weidner, Kohlmann, Dotzauer, & Burns, 1996). Similarly, chronic psychological stress due to interpersonal and work-related daily hassles has been associated with increased consumption of high-fat/high-sugar between-meal snacks (O'Connor, Jones, Conner, McMillan & Ferguson, 2008). Furthermore, negative mood states such as depression and anxiety have also been shown to increase craving for palatable foods (Willner et al., 1998). Although the effects of stress and negative mood on eating behavior have been well characterized, there is a dearth of research exploring whether this behavior actually functions to decrease psychological stress perceptions.

    Only two known research groups have experimentally tested whether comfort eating might buffer psychological responses to adverse experiences, and these studies have yielded conflicting results. In a sample of healthy men and women, Macht and Mueller (2007) found that after viewing a sad film clip, the consumption of chocolate improved negative mood to a greater extent than drinking water and that palatable food improved mood to a greater extent than non-palatable food. However, a second study in young adults found that after negative mood induction, the consumption of a top-ranked comfort food did not improve mood significantly

  • MAN

    USCR

    IPT

    ACCE

    PTED

    ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTCOMFORT EATING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS 4

    more than the consumption of a non-comfort food or no food at all (Wagner, Ahlstrom, Vickers, Redden, & Mann, 2014). In sum, previous findings are mixed regarding the capacity of comfort eating to experimentally improve negative psychological mood, and no prior studies have examined whether comfort eating may attenuate psychological stress perceptions.

    Comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression. Changes in appetite in depression are often observed (Wenzel, Steer, & Beck, 2005), and higher levels of depressive symptoms have been associated with both greater comfort eating (Konttinen, Mnnist, Sarlio-Lhteenkorva, Silventoinen, & Kaukkala, 2010) and a greater tendency to self-medicate by eating chocolate in order to feel better (Schuman, Gitlin, & Fairbanks, 1987). Whether this comfort eating in depressed individuals functions to dampen negative emotion is unknown. Although those with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be more likely to engage in comfort eating, depression is also associated with anhedonia (Sloan, Strauss, & Wisner, 2001), which could plausibly diminish any stress-buffering effects of comfort eating. In one experimental study in young women, Willner & Healy (1994) found that participants rated the pleasantness and desirability of cheese significantly lower after a depressive mood induction compared to baseline. If the presence of depressive mood dampens hedonic capacity related to food consumption, this suggests that perhaps comfort eating may not be an effective coping response to stress in individuals exhibiting higher levels of depressive symptoms. Therefore, an aim of the present study was to test whether potential stress-buffering effects of comfort eating might depend upon level of depressive symptoms.

    Using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS), the current study addresses critical gaps in the existing literature by assessing whether comfort eating is a mitigating factor for real-world (rather than laboratory-induced) perceived

  • MAN

    USCR

    IPT

    ACCE

    PTED

    ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPTCOMFORT EATING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS 5

    stress at the population health level. Specifically, we hypothesized that self-reported comfort eating would moderate the effect of adverse life events on the primary outcome of perceived psychological stress at the age of 18-19. Furthermore, we examined whether comfort eating might function differently depending upon individuals levels of depressive symptomology.

    Methods Participants and Procedures

    The primary goal of the original NGHS was to evaluate the impact of health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial factors on the development of obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The NGHS methodology and sample characteristics have been described previously in detail (The NHLBI Growth and Health Study Research Group, 1992). For the present study, the University Office of the Human Research Protection Program approved all research activities.

    Girls were eligible for enrollment in NGHS if: (1) they identified themselves as being either Black or White; (2) t