Foreign Caregiver

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2007 -

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Esping-Andersen(1990) Esping-Andersen(1990)

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AbstractEsping-Andersens three-world typology has been challenged by the existence of other regime types. Among these debates, whether there is East Asian regime is one of the most heated topics. The consensus in literature is that East Asian countries are predominantly productivist , developmental states and Confucian culture. This means that social policies are subordinate to economic development and that social expenditures are heavily weighted on education. At the same time, families, enterprises, and communities play major roles in providing services. However, as feminists criticism about Esping-Andersens neglect in family dimension (care in particular), most contemporary literatures about East Asian welfare regimes focus only on the social policies related to production. As the pace of aging in East Asian population is faster than its Western counterparts, the demand for caring is no less urgent than the West. East Asian culture typically causes these countries to play a secondary role in terms of social welfare. But as the structure and functions of families continue to shift, the means of providing care for the elderly has become an important issue. In terms of service delivery, home-based, institutional-based and

community-based systems have become the essences of the long-term care services in Taiwan. Affected by the world trend, the development of long-term care in Taiwan in recent times emphasizes the development of home-based and community-based systems. On the other hand, with the coming of globalization, the cost of labor mobility declined, along with the decline of the ability of individual nation to enforce their borders. These paved way for the business of care to cross national boundary and gave rise to a new class of workers -- migrant domestic workers. With a similar aging population structure in western world, East Asian society also has to face similar care issues. The formation of those newly arisen risks forced East Asian countries to draw up relevant care policies. In terms of the forms of care, an obvious trend in Taiwan is the rise of migrant domestic workers. Nevertheless, few articles observe these policies in the context of care regime. Based on the above, this article attempts to establish a connection between East Asian welfare regime and care regime.

Key wordsEast Asian welfare regime, care regime, migrant domestic worker

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Esping-Andersen (1990) 1980

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convergence theory diffusion model power-resources approach state-centered theory(Wang 2006; 1994)1960 logic of industrialism (Cutright 1965; Kerr 1964; Mishra 1973; Wilensky and Lebeaux 1958; Williamson and Fleming 1977) (Korpi 1978; Shalev 1983; Stephens 1979; Walter 2006) (Collier and Messick 1975)

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(F. G. Castles 1985; Skocpol 1985; Skocpol and Amenta 1986) Esping-Andersen (1990) Esping-Andersen (Orloff 1993; Pateman 1988, 1992) Esping-Andersen (Arts and Gelissen 2002; Bonoli 1997; F. Castles and Mitchell 1992; Ferrera 1996; Leibfried, 1992; Siaroff 1994) (Arts & Gelissen 2002; Aspalter 2006; Aurel 2004; Choi 2006; Guillen and Alvarez, 2001; Holliday, 2000; Hort and Kuhnle 2000; Kwon 2005; Kwon 1997; Leitner 2003; Martin 2005; Simoni and Trifiletti 2004)

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1970 (Crepaz and Moser 2002; Garrett 1998; Mishra 1999; Swank 2002) (Rodrik 1997) ( 2003) efficiency hypothesis compensation hypothesis ((Ohmae 1996; Strange 1996) compensation hypothesis (Cameron 1978; Garrett 1998; Garrett and Mitchell 2001; Katzenstein 1985; Rodrik 1997; Swank 1998, 2001, 2002) (Johnson 2003) (1994) 8

(Collier and Messick 1975) care (Badgett 1999; Folbre 2001; Montgomery 1992; Stoller 1992) Ito 2002 ( 2007) 3(OECD 2007a) 4(OECD 2007b) care deficit(Williams 2003)3

1960 2005 10.6% 15.1 10.8% 19.2% 5.7 20.2% 8.1% 18.3% 4 G7 1998 61.3% 2006 68.2% 9

social risks (Esping-Andersen 1999) (Taylor-Gooby 2004) ( 1997; 1997; 1997) (, 1997) (England 2005) (J. S. O'connor, Orloff, A. S.and Shaver 1999; 1997)

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(Daly and Lewis 2000; Rostgaard 2002)/ ( 2003)/ (Morel 2007) ( 2003; 2003) (Anttonen and Sipila 1996) Esping-Andersen (1990)

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Gough (2000) welfare outcomes stratification outcomes =++ in kindin cash Anttonen and Sipila (1996) grey market subsidiarity model funding (Morel, 2006)12

Rostgaard (2002) Bettio and Plantenga (2004) Glucksmann and Lyon (2006) Bettio, Simonazzi, and Villa (2006) Lyon (2006) OECD Anttonen and Sipila (1996) Bettio and Plantenga (2004) 13

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Esping-Andersen(1990) (Arts and Gelissen 2002; 2003) (J. O'Connor 1973; Offe and Keane 1984) GDP (Jacobs 2000) (Aspalter 2006) 15

Jones (1993) conservative corporatism without worker participationsolidarity without equality ( 1991) 199127

familialistic (Croissant 2004) conservative-familialistic (Croissant 2004)

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Jones (1993)Holliday (2000) Wood and Gough (2006) productivist welfare regime (Walker & Wong 2005; White and Goodman 1998)Holliday (2000) faccilitative developmental-universalist developmental-particularist Esping-Andersen(1990)

developmental regime (Aspalter 2006; Croissant 2004; Kwon 2005; White and Goodman 1998) (Kwon 2005; Lee and Ku 2007)(Kwon 2005) pacify (Aspalter 2006; Kwon 2005)

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Aspalter (2001b) political institutions party and electoral competitions political legitimization (Aspalter 2001a; Aspalter 2001b)conservative welfare state systems

Aspalter Aspalter 1945 Christian democratic (Aspalter 2001b)

Ku and Jones Finer (2007) Lee and Ku (2007) developmentalism corporatism individual responsibility in social security international trade competition Esping-Andersen (1990) 18

( 1998; 2005; 1998; 2004) 1994 ( 1998) 2006 ( 2006) ( 1992)( 2006) ADL ( 2006) 19

( /) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 --1,823 2,599 3,649 4,044 4,111 106,331 112,934 120,711 120,598 131,067 144,015 153,785 17,737/52.9% 19,320/47.6% 31,862/66.1% 35,712/68.9% 39,347/68.9% 42,517/68.7% 52,206/------11,427 - 5

(2007)http://myurl.com.tw/9umn (2007)http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/04/07/1/1-24.htm http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/year/y04-15.xls (2006)5

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( 2002; 2006; 2005; 2001; 2003; 2005) ( 2002; 2004; 2001; , 2005) ( 2001; 2005)

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Sovannarith (2001) 1997 remittances (Hewison 2004) (Piper 2004) 1990 global care chain(Hochschild 2000) (Lan 2003; Loveband 2004; Piper 2004; 2004) familialism Bettio, Simonazzi, and Villa (2006) 22

Lyon(2006)60 10.2%70-79 12.4%80 20% (2004) 6 migrant-minder model(Lyon 2006) 1992 ( 2003) ( 2001)

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2000 28.6 11 23

7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 98,508 103,780 113,755 115,724 128,223 141,752 151,391 7,823 9,154 6,956 4,874 2,844 2,263 2,394 106,331 112,934 120,711 120,598 131,067 144,015 153,785

2007 http://statdb.cla.gov.tw/html/mon/210020.htm 2006 8

2006 144,238 7,153 http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/04/07/1/1-20.htm8

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2006 338,755 http://myurl.com.tw/j1du 24

( 2006) (2001) 1992 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 ( 2004) 2006 9 24

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( 2005) (2006) ( 2006; 2002; 2004; 2005) 2006 10

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( 2000; , 2001)(2004) 11

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2003 27

1980 Productivist Regime(Holliday 2000; Wood & Gough 2006)developmentalism(Kwon 2005; Lee & Ku 2007) Confucianism(Jones 1993) O'Connor (1993) (Chan 2006; Sodei 2004) (Sodei 2004) Sung (2003)

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Sung (2003) family-in-lawdaughter-in-law seniority (Chan 2006; Sung 2003) ( 1991) 199127 Kwon (2005) Croissant(2004)

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(Chan 2006; Croissant 2004; Sodei 2004; Sung 2003; 2003) (Holliday 2000; Jacobs 2000) ( 2002) (Evashwick 2005) ( 2004) Jacobs (2000) Park (2007)30

(Lyon 2006) ( 1991) ( 2000) Wilding (2000) regulative market-oriented

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(private)

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(Bettio et al 2006; Glucksmann and Lyon 2006; Lyon 2006) ( 1992) ( 2006) (2006) 33

Bettio et al (2006)

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2007http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/04/07/1/1-24.htm 2002 53(3)268-304 1997 127-116 2006 vs. vs. (61)283-317 2003 Gender, economy, power, institution and young child policy variation in an era of globalization 2003 2003 9 27 2007 2007106 2005 6 2 7 .2007 9 22 1998 93-116 1997 2006 1997 52-97

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2006 (115) 220-237 2003 ? (31)189-241 2003 93-125 2005 4(2) 97-138 1994 2000 1992 (60)103-110 2006 2003 (104)402-412 2007http://statdb.cla.gov.tw/html/mon/210020.htm 2004 (32)1-58 2002 (90)205221 1991 2001 -- (34)18-20 36

2005 4(4)41-68 2002 91 140 1998 3-13 1997 2003 6(2)1-11 2004 -- (105) 353-366 4(2) 97-138 2004 2004 2004 9 3 2003 185-226 2001 19(3)14-19 1997 13-56 2001 19(3)8-13 2007 http://myurl.com.tw/9umn 2005 37

4(4)69-92 2005 (124) 129-153 2004 2004 9 3

Anttonen, A., & Sipila, J, 1996, European Social Care Services: Is It Possible To Identify Models ? Journal of European Social Policy 6(2):87-100 Arts, W. A., &