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Bài trình bày trong Khóa tập huấn Phần mềm Quản trị Thư viện Tích hợp nguồn mở Koha do Liên hiệp Thư viện Đại học khu vực phía Bắc và công ty D&L tổ chức tại Đại học Sư phạm Hà Nội, ngày 27/11/2013

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  • 1. GII THIU PHN MM T DO NGUN M H THNG GIY PHP CA PMTDNM V T LIU M LIN HIP TH VIN I HC KHU VC PHA BC O TO V TRANG B KIN THC QUN TR TH VIN TCH HP CI T & S DNG PMNM QUN TR TH VIN TCH HP KOHA I HC S PHM H NI, NGY 27/11/2013 NGI TRNH BY: L TRUNG NGHA VN PHNG PHI HP PHT TRIN MI TRNG KHOA HC & CNG NGH, B KHOA HC & CNG NGH Email: letrungnghia.foss@gmail.com Blogs: http://vn.myblog.yahoo.com/ltnghia http://vnfoss.blogspot.com/ Trang web CLB PMTDNM Vit Nam: http://vfossa.vn/vi/ HanoiLUG wiki: http://wiki.hanoilug.org/

2. Ni dung 1. Lch s v nh ngha phn mm t do & ngun m 2. H thng giy php ca PMTDNM 3. H thng giy php ca t liu m 4. Tm tt 5. Ti liu tham kho 3. 1.1. Lch s v nh ngha PMTD - Nhng nm 1960 - my tnh ln Mainframe - phn mm l t do - 30/09/1969 IBM tuyn b s bn phn mm t 1970 - 1984: Richard Stallman ri AI Lab ca MIT, m d n GNU - Mc ch ca GNU: Xy dng h iu hnh t do - GNU is Not Unix - 1991, Linus Torvalds, tuyn b v h iu hnh t do tng t Minix - 03/1994 phin bn Linux v1.0 ra i - Nhn Linux mang giy php GPLv2 - H iu hnh GNU/Linux = Nhn Linux + cc tin ch GNU - nh ngha PMTD vi 4 quyn c bn: (1) T do s dng (2) T do phn phi (3) T do sa i(4) T do phn phi bn phi sinh - PMTD l ni v cc quyn t do, khng ni v tin - Qu Phn mm T do FSF (Free Software Foundation) 4. 1.2. Lch s v nh ngha PMNM - 1998 OSI (Open Source Initiative) ra i - nh ngha PMNM 10 im ca OSI. Xem: http://opensource.org/osd - nh ngha PMNM tng t nh vi PMTD, nhng: (1) c nhng ni lng hn v 't do' (2) nng v yu t k thut v thc dng hn (3) nhn mnh hn v tnh khng phn bit i x - M hnh kinh doanh da vo dch v - ht nh PMTDPMTDNM = PMTD + PMNM 5. 2. H thng giy php ca PMTDNM 1. C PMTDNM v PMSHQ u cung cp cho NSD mt giy php. Trong khi giy php ca PMSHQ (EULA) thng c ni dung cm on NSD, th cc giy php ca PMTDNM li thng lm iu ngc li. 2. C hn 70 loi giy php PMTDNM v chng u phi tun th nh ngha hoc ca PMTD t FSF, hoc ca PMNM t OSI. 3. CAL: Khi c nhiu ngi ng gp m ngun cho mt d n PMTDNM, mi ngi ng gp c th s k tha thun vi cng ty hoc qu ng sau PMTDNM . C tha thun nhng li bn quyn, c tha thun khng nh bn quyn. 6. 2.1. Cc giy php d di 1. Cn c gi l cc giy php ho phng hoc ti thiu, bn cht: T do cho ti lp trnh vin. Khi phn phi li phn mm, lp trnh vin c th c php phn phi li phn mm dng m ngun hoc m nh phn nh PMSHQ. in hnh l giy php h BSD. BSD cho quyn thay i ty PM v tch hp vo cc PM khc m khng c hn ch no. 2. Thng cc giy php BSD c trao cho nhng d n th im, d n lm chun c kinh ph t Chnh ph M. 3. Giy php tng t: Apache, Zope Public License 7. 2.2. Cc giy php mnh 1. Cn c gi l cc giy php Copyleft. 2. Mang T do cho ti ngi s dng. Bt k ai ng gp thm m ngun vo cho chng trnh th cc m ngun cng s mang giy php gc ban u khi phn phi phn mm phi sinh . 3. Trit l: PM c tc gi, khng c ch s hu. 4. Cc giy php Copyleft: GNU General Pulic Licence (gn 70% cc PMTDNM mang giy php ny, trong c nhn Linux); GNU Lesser General Public Licence (LGPL); Affero General Public Licence (AGPL). Mt s giy php mnh: Sleepycat; eCos Licence; IBM Public Licence 1.0; Mozilla Public Licence 1.1. 8. 2.3. Phn phi theo vi giy php 1. S dng giy php i. V d: Trolltech phn phi Qt theo giy php i: nu phn mm GPL i vi Qt th s dng Qt GPL. Nu phn mm khng tng thch GPL i vi Qt th phi mua giy php c bit s dng. Tng t: StarOffice c giy php c quyn, trong khi OpenOffice.org c giy php LGPL. 2. c bit, Mozilla Firefox tng chp nhn nhng ng gp theo 3 giy php MPL, GPL v LGPL, l do khng tm c cc lp trnh vin tng ng gp m ngun cho d n. 3. Thm thng tin v giy php ca PMTDNM, xem y (khuyn co s dng, bn dch ...). 9. 2.3. Tnh tng thch ca giy phpKHNG TNG THCHGIY PHP CA KOHA: GPLv3Vi 2 giy php ngun m khng tng thch nhau, th vic sao chp m ngun ca chng trnh ny sang chng trnh khc s vi phm t nht 1 trong 2 giy php ! Xem thm: http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html 10. 3. H thng giy php ca t liu m 1. Xut x: Ti liu l mt phn khng th thiu ca chng trnh nh theo Lut SHTT ca TBN. Ti liu cn c cng mc t do vi phn mm. Bt k lc no c thay i trong chng trnh th cng c thay i trong ti liu. 2. Ti liu chng trnh thng khng c nh dng, hoc dng vn bn th, khng b ph thuc vo bt k trnh son tho no, cng ty no. 3. Ph bin: 2 h thng giy php t liu m: GNU General Free Document Licence (GFDL) v Creative Commons (CC). 4. V s: vn bn, nh, m thanh, multimedia... c GP CC. 11. 3.1. Creative Commons l g? 1. H thng giy php m cho cc t liu (ti liu vn bn, hnh nh, m thanh v a phng tin). 2. Phng php tun th, bo v quyn SHTT - i vi ngi sng to - i vi ngi s dng 3. S dng trong gio dc 12. 3.2. Quyn v ngha v tiu chun 1. Cc quyn c bn ca ngi s dng giy php CC - Sao chp tc phm - Phn phi tc phm - Hin th hoc trnh by tc phm - Truyn t tc phm - Lm cc bn sao nguyn tc ca tc phm ln CD/DVD 2. Cc ngha v - Ghi cng tc gi, ngi sng to - Tun th giy php vi cc quyn c trao - Gi li bt k lu bn quyn no - Ch ra lin kt ti giy php bt k bn sao no - Ch ra cc phn ty bin i vi cc tc phm phi sinh 3. Khng c php: - Chnh sa cc iu khon giy php - S dng tc phm m gy hi cho uy tn ca tc gi - Ng tc gi ph chun hoc u cho bn - Hn ch ngi s dng khc bng bt k cng ngh g 13. 3.3. Cc yu t ty chn giy php C 4 yu t ty chn cho giy php CC:1. Ghi cng - bt buc (BY) 2. Phi thng mi (NC) 3. Khng c tc phm phi sinh (ND) 4. Chia s ging tng t (SA) 14. 3.4. Cc giy php CC tiu chun C 6 loi giy php CC tiu chun: 1. Ghi cng (BY) 2. Ghi cng - Phi thng mi (BY-NC) 3. Ghi cng - Chia s tng t (BY-SA) 4. Ghi cng - Khng c phi sinh (BY-ND) 5. Ghi cng - Phi thng mi Chia s tng t (BY-NC-SA) 6. Ghi cng - Phi thng mi Khng c phi sinh (BY-NC-ND) 15. 3.5. Mc t do cc giy php CC Mt s khi nim: 1. Min cng cngNo Rights Reserved2. Gi li mt s quynSome Rights Reserved3. Gi li tt c cc quynAll Rights Reserved 16. 3.6. Ghi cng cc t liu CC Cc ni dung ghi nhn cng cho tc phm 1. Cng nhn ngi sng to 2. a ra tn tc phm 3. a ra URL ca tc phm 4. a ra dng & URL giy php ca tc phm (nu c) 5. Gi nguyn lu bn quyn ca tc phm Mt s lu : 1. Xc nh ngi sng to 2. Ghi cng cho nhng ngi c lin quan: cp vn, NXB... 3. Lun c giy php CC 4. Lin kt ti site c tc phm gc ban u 5. Phi sinh: y l tc phm phi sinh ca ... 17. 3.7. Tm kim cc t liu CC 4 bc tm kim: 1. Khi to tm kim 2. Chn giy php 3. Chn dng t liu 4. Tin hnh tm kimhttp://search.creativecommons.org 18. 3.8. S dng cc t liu CC sn c Tn gi Wiki CommonsM tURLHn 13 triu tp hnh nh, m thanh, a http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page phng tin. C ng dn ti nhiu d n khc nh: Meta-Wiki, Wikibooks, Wikispecies, Wikisource, Wiktionary, Wikiversity, ...Ti nguyn Gn 40.000 ti nguyn cc kha hc t http://www.oercommons.org/ gio dc ph thng 12 lp ti cao ng, c giy m php m, s dng t do. Th vin mHn 1 triu u sch cc loi.http://openlibrary.org/Sch gio Ni ng k v tp hp cc ng dn http://www.opentextbook.org/ khoa m ti cc d n, cc kho sch gio khoa m. My tm Cng truy cp cc tp ch in t m http://www.oajse.com/ kim cc ca i hc M Krishna Kanta Handiqui. tp ch m im khi u tm kim v s cc tp ch m khc trn th gii. 19. 3.9. V d v t liu CC ting Vit 26/09/2012, 3 ti liu ca Vin hn lm Cng ngh M - FTA (Free Technology Academy), giy php GFDL, CC BY-SA c dch xong sang ting Vit v xut bn trn mng Internet. 16/4/2013, ti liu 'Sch ch dn tham chiu POSTGRESQL 9.0' ca nhm pht trin ton cu POSTGRESQL c dch xong sang ting Vit v c xut bn trn Internet. Tt c cc ti liu trn u c t 1-2 giy php ti liu t do, cho php ngi s dng sao chp, phn phi, pha trn... min l tun theo giy php. 20. 3.10. Ti nguyn gio dc m - OER Tuyn b ca Hi ngh OER Th gii, 20-22/06/2012, do UNESCO t chc ti Paris, Php, khuyn co 1. Khuyn khch nng cao nhn thc v s dng OER. 2. To thun li cho cc mi trng s dng CNTT-TT. 3. Tng cng pht trin cc chin lc v chnh sch OER. 4. Thc y hiu bit v s dng cc khung cp php m. 5. H tr xy dng nng lc v s pht trin bn vng cc t liu hc tp cht lng. 6. Khuyn khch cc lin minh chin lc v OER. 7. Thc y pht trin v p dng OER trong cc ngn ng v Xut bn truy ng cnh vn ha khc nhau. cp m 8. Thc y nghin cu v OER (Open 9. To thun li pht hin, tm kim s dng v chia s OER. Access 10. Thc y vic cp php m cho cc t liu gio dc c Publishing) to ra t ngn sch nh nc. 21. 3.11. Tm tt v cc t liu m 1. Cc t liu m l cch thc y i mi sng to thng qua vic m ra tri thc cho mi ngi trong khi vn tn trng cc quyn SHTT. 2. Khuyn khch i mi sng to tip tc da vo tri thc c. 3. C kh nng l la chn tt v Ti nguyn Gio dc M - OER (Open Education Resources) cho gio dc Vit Nam Cc trng i hc thng i tin phong. 22. 4. Tm tt 1. C nhiu loi giy php, vi cc u nhc im khc nhau. Trong khi GPL a quyn t do v ti tn ngi s dng u cui, th BSD li a quyn t do v cho nhng ngi sa i hoc phn phi li. 2. Khi khi xng mt d n PMTDNM, rt quan trng phi chn ngay mt giy php theo v sau ny khng d sa. 3. PMTDNM v PMSHQ khng ch khc nhau v bn cht cc giy php, m cn khc nhau bn cht ca m hnh pht trin v cc m hnh kinh doanh. 4. Cc h thng giy php cho t liu m: CC v GFDL... 5. V s ti nguyn gio dc m - OER ting ngc ngoi c cc giy php CC. Rt cn c OER bng ting Vit. 23. 5. Ti liu tham kho 1. Gii thiu phn mm t do. 2. H thng t vn ca OSS Watch - nc Anh - v PMTDNM. 3. Ch dn c bn v cc ti nguyn gio dc m (OER). 4. Ch dn v OER trong gio dc i hc. 5. Chnh sch pht trin v s dng OER Ghana. 6. Lot bi v OER trn tp ch Tin hc & i sng. 7. Lot bi v cc giy php CC trn tp ch Tin hc & i sng. 8. Mt s video clip v PMTDNM. 24. Tt c cc hnh s dng trong ti liu ny u: hoc c cc giy php CC, hoc nm trong min cng cng, hoc c tc gi ca ti liu ty bin da vo cc hnh . Cm n! Hi p L TRUNG NGHAEmail: letrungnghia.foss@gmail.com Blogs: http://vn.myblog.yahoo.com/ltnghia http://vnfoss.blogspot.com/ Trang web CLB PMTDNM Vit Nam: http://vfossa.vn/vi/ HanoiLUG wiki: http://wiki.hanoilug.org/