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From Pedagogy to Heutagogy
Eleanor J. PierreEJPCommunications
Krystle R. PierreGeorge Brown College
At the end of this session you should be able to : Identify with the practice of heutagogy as a
potential learning approach for both face to face and on-line learning.
Discuss some tips and techniques for a heutagogical curriculum.
Explore opportunities for adaptations to practice.
Recall a course you took for certification and thought I will never use this information in real life..
Then think of a course where you were really engaged.
What made the difference?
Learning Theories/Teaching Practice
Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills and attitudes retained.
We had several isms to name a few
PresenterPresentation NotesCognitivism/ConstructivismCognitivism focuses on the inner mental activities opening the black box of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn. Cognitive Learning Theory implies that the different processes concerning learning can be explained by analyzing the mental processes first. It posits that with effective cognitive processes, learning is easier and new information can be stored in the memory for a long time.
Behaviorism is a worldview that operates on a principle of stimulus-response. All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning). All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.
Constructivists believe that the learner actively constructs his or her own understandings of reality through interaction with objects, events, and people in the environment, and reflecting on these interactions. Early perceptual psychologists (Gestalt psychology) focused on the making of wholes from bits and pieces of objects and events in the world, believing that meaning was the construction in the brain of patterns from these pieces.
Learning Theories/Teaching Practice and how they relate to Instructional
DesignThen we had the stages of the gogies Pedagogy - often associated with the teaching of childrenAndragogy - with the teaching of adults and nowHeutagogy - the study and practice of self-determined learning
the method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept.
Effective teachers use an array of teaching strategies because there is no single, universal approach that suits all situations. Different strategies used in different combinations with different groupings of students will improve learning outcomes.
PresenterPresentation NotesHeutagogy is also an attempt to challenge some ideas about teaching and learning that still prevail in teacher centred learning and the need for, as Bill Ford (1997) eloquently puts it 'knowledge sharing' rather than 'knowledge hoarding'.
Heutagogy as an extension of Pedagogy
PresenterPresentation NotesHautagogy does not stand on its own but have roots that penetrate through andragogy and right into pedagogy. This methodology should not be used with new students who are not prepared to work in a learning environment where they become responsible for their own learning. That is not to say that the methodology cannot be made explicit to a group of adult learners and then gradually be implemented into the course of teaching. It should be an intentional act of integration into the teaching process, one where learners are taught how to learn and operate in this environment.
For use in on-line learning environments, students must also first be prepared to do research, come to conclusions using both inductive and deductive reasoning and check for accuracy of facts and data used in their learning process. Activities must be explicit and expectations transparent. The empowerment of students to become curators of their own learning give them the authority to become free agents of their personalized learning path. However, this is not an activity students are accustomed to doing so the process of how to arrive there must be taught incrementally. This cumulative knowledge, skills, and abilities will then become the catalyst for that change that creates the paradigm shift from learners desire to be taught to autonomous learner.
Heutagogy (based on the Greek for self) was defined by Hase and Kenyon in 2000 as the study of self-determined learning. Origins
Learners serving as the major agent in their own learning, which occurs as a result of personal experiences (Hase & Kenyon, 2007, p. 112)
Heutagogy is influenced by humanistic, phenomenological systems, and self determination theories in its orientation toward an affirmation of learners as never not learning (Blaschke, 2012).
Implies access to knowledge and skills in a non-linear fashion by todays hyperlearners (M. Herie, Centennial College- Global Citizen Digest Vol 2_Issue 2.)
PresenterPresentation NotesHornsby, K.L., & Maki, W.M. (2008). The virtual philosopher: Designing Socratic method learning objects for online philosophy courses. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3). Retrieved from: http://jolt.merlot.org/vol4no3/hornsby_0908.htm
A gogy for the Needs of Learners
The new generation of learners are hyper-learners (i.e. non-linear in their approach to accessing and processing information)
Power dynamics in the classroom are shifting towards learner-as-consumer
Information explosion, suggest that we should now embrace an educational approach where the learner determines what and how learning should take place (self-determined learning).
Twitter: A study by Junco, Heiberger, and Loken (2010) showed that students who used Twitter (as compared to those who did not) were more actively engaged in their learning processes and had higher GPAs.
Junco et al. (2010) also found that the use of Twitter boosted student-student and student-instructor interaction, as well as promoted active learning.
PresenterPresentation NotesFaculty in higher education has a certain amount of autonomy in practice. There is great latitude in course development, delivery, and evaluation. Consequently students learning experiences are standardized. Students are treated as if their learning needs, interests, and abilities are the same. Instead, we need to do just the opposite. With students having more autonomy over their learning, the ability to raise the bar of institutional expectations may propel them to further individual accomplishments.
What the research is sayingVirtual Philosopher: Hornsby and
Maki (2008) report on an asynchronous learning tool meant
to build learners skills in developing, reflecting upon, and transforming thinking processes
and logic. (Merlot)
Mobile learning: Cochrane and Batemans (2010) research
showed that mobile learning supports collaboration, data and resource capturing and sharing,
and reflective practice.
In heutagogy, the learner sets the learning course, designing
and developing the map of learning, from curriculum to
assessment (Hase, 2009). Heutagogy emphasizes
development of capabilities in addition to competencies.
Learner-generated content - Initial research findings by Blaschke, Porto,
and Kurtz (2010) indicate that active use of social media, for example,
development of learner-generated content, supports cognitive and
metacognitive skill development, whereas passive use (consumption) is
less effective in supporting development of these skills
PresenterPresentation NotesVirtual Philosopher - The online tool journal promotes several interactive tools and innovative suggestions that provide active learning activities built around various scenarios that the learner works through in a process of self-discovery. Through these scenarios and the responses provided by students, the Virtual Philosopher identifies flaws in the learners thought processes, forcing the learner to evaluate and re-evaluate why she or he thinks in a certain way. According to Hornsby and Maki (2008), the asynchronous environment seemed to reinforce deeper learning and promotes problem solving and critical analysis
Heutagogy promotes Double Loop Learning
Taking an activity to deeper levels. Have students create a collage of drawings to depict relationship among concepts and explain their rationale for the choices indicated.
PresenterPresentation NotesRe-evaluating andreframingour goals, values and beliefs is a more complex way of processing information and involves a more sophisticated way of engaging with an experience. This is called double-loop learning and looks at consequences from a wider perspective. Double-loop learning is non-linear and not necessarily planned. It involves formative evaluation in that learners may develop questions as they progress, questions that are not just a reaction to problems but that may be a reflection of their existing theories, values, or assumptions that they feel are being challenged.These situations requirea deeper assessment of the situation and our strategy. In cases like these, not only will we evaluate our own goals and beliefs, but also those of the people we interact