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- 1. A Comparison of Growth and Gene Expression in Two Species of Oysters By: Katie Fulkerson Advisor: Steven Roberts By: Katie Fulkerson Advisor: Steven Roberts
2. Oyster History
- Oyster trade began in America in 1608
- Habitat degradation and overharvest lead to population declines
- Oyster culture seen as solution to saving natural stocks while continuing to meet consumer demand
3. Cultivated Oysters
- Atlantic oyster ( Crassostrea virginica )
- Kumamoto oyster ( Crassostrea sikamea )
- European flat oyster ( Ostrea edulis )
- Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas )
- Olympia oyster ( Ostrea conchaphila )
4. Pacific oyster(Crassostrea gigas) :
- Valuable commercial species
- Imported from Japan
- Growth tends to be rapid when they are young and typically decreases when they reach 4-5 years of age.
5. Olympia oyster(Ostrea conchaphila):
- Native species
- This species experiences a slower growth rate, taking 4-5 years to reach market size (50mm).
6. Growth is dependent on
- Environmental factors
- Water temperature
- Food availability
- Placement in the water column
- Sediment type
- Density of the bed
- Compare growth rates in two species of oysters from the same environment.
- Identify genes that are likely involved in growth in Pacific and Olympia oysters.
- Compare gene expression patterns from Pacific and Olympia tissues extracted during two periods of development.
- Oysters were grown in Agate Pass in Kitsap County, WA.
- Measurements taken from umbo to edge, once a month from August to December 2007.
- Tissues samples from the mantle, gills, and muscle were taken in September and November.
Objective 1: Growth Rates 9. 10. Objective 2: Gene Identification
- Expressed sequence tags using bioinformatic techniques (KSPI, PKCIP, INSIG-2, P450)
- One previously described gene (mGDF)
11. Molluscan growth differential factor (mGDF)
- associated with the transforming growth factor beta family of proteins.
- detected in the muscle ofO. conchaphilaand all tissues fromC. gigas .
m g ma L C. gigas m g ma O. conchaphila L 12. Kazal-type serine peptidase inhibitor domain 1 (KSPI)
- A Serine proteinase inhibitor found in blood plasma, saliva, secretions of pancreas, seminal vesicles, and submandibular glands.
- detected in all tissues samples of bothO.conchaphilaandC . gigas.
m g ma C. gigas L m g ma O. conchaphila L 13. Protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1 (PKCIP)
- part of a family of conserved regulator proteins
- plays regulatory roles in multiple cellular processes including differentiation, cell growth, secretion, and muscle contraction.
- detected in the gill and muscle ofO. conchaphilaand all tissues ofC.gigas .
m g ma C. gigas L m g ma O. conchaphila L 14. Insulin-induced gene 2 protein (INSIG-2)
- involved in metabolic activity, gene transcription, and cell growth.
- not detected in any tissue of either species.
m g ma C. gigas L m g ma O. conchaphila L 15. Cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase/lyase (P450)
- a monooxygenase enzyme
- functions in the metabolism of endogenous compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons
- In mollusks expression is highest in the digestive gland, but it is also found in blood cells, gills, foot, and gonads.
- detected in the gill and muscle ofC.gigas .
m g ma C. gigas L m g ma O. conchaphila L 16. Objective 3: Gene Expression
- Quantitative RT-PCR methods measured and compared gene expression levels in oyster tissue samples.
x x muscle muscle muscle Olympia Gill X mantle mantle mantle Pacific P450 INSIG2 PKCIP KSPI mGDF Species Tissues Sampled 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Conclusion
- Four genes associated with growth were successfully identified in these oysters.
- Characterization of tissue expression patterns
- Quantification of expression level in relation to different periods of development.
- With the exception of KSPI all the genes examined varied in expression levels over time. This may indicate a switch in metabolic processes from the growing season (summer) to fasting season (winter).
- Steven Roberts
- Sam White
- Vivianne Barry and Debbie Kay
- Ken Fulkerson