greek and etruscan art
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Gardners Art Through the Ages, 12e
The Greek WorldChapter 5 Gods, Heroes, and Athletes: The Art of Ancient Greece
GoalsUnderstand the diverse cultural influences on Greek artistic development Discuss the evolution of the human figure and how it is represented in Greek art Relate the development of temple architecture Cite architectural components and terminology Understand the impact of the conquest of the Greeks on their respective art forms Discuss individual artists and their respective styles
Greek HumanismFor we are the lovers of the beautiful, yet simple in our tastes. And we cultivate the mind without loss of manliness. -- PericlesGreek humanism led to democracy. [demos=people]Greek gods took human form & exhibited human frailties yet were immortalThe perfect individual became the Greek ideal.The first Olympic Games were held in 776 BCE.Athens as the center of ancient Greek culture.Carried out in the stoa, the agora and palaestrus.Sound mind in sound body
The Greek GodsAphrodite: (Venus) Goddess of love and beauty.Apollo: (Apollo) God of light and music. A great archer.Artemis: (Diana) Goddess of the hunt and wild animals.Athena: (Minerva) Goddess of wisdom and warfare. Her city was Athens.Demeter: (Ceres) Goddess of grain and agriculture.Dionysos: (Bacchus) God of wine.Hera: (Juno) Goddess of marriage.Herakles: (Hercules) Greatest Greek hero who performed 12 great labors. According to legend, he established the Olympic games.Hermes: (Mercury) Messenger of the gods, guide of travelers.Laocon: A character from the Aeneid: a Trojan priest who was strangled, along with his two sons, while sacrificing at an altar.Medusa: A gorgon with a hideous face and snake hair, she turned anyone who gazed at her to stone.Zeus: (Jupiter) King of the gods.
Geometric, Orientalizing, and Archaic ArtCharacteristics typical of vase decoration from the Geometric period. Almost exclusively covered in abstract motifs.Human figure is highly stylized.No depth of space.The 7th century was known as the Orientalizing period in Greek art because the Greeks borrowed many motifs from Egypt or Near Eastern art due to closer contact through trade.New subject-matterEgyptian monsters, like the Sphinx and lamassu.Black-figure painting.
Geometric, Orientalizing, and Archaic ArtFound in a cemetery: 3 ft tall, open bottom, perhaps to pour libations in honor of the dead.A fine example of figure painting in Ancient Greece.Features a meander, a Greek key design around the rim of the vase. The scenes on the vase depict funerary practices.2 dimensionalThe Krater was a vessel for mixing wine and water.Highly geometric patterns. No sense of open space.Figures are simple and composite.Human figured reintroduced & storytelling was revived. Diplyon krater ca. 740 BCE
Geometric SculptureSchematic figures also existed: Bronze of a man and a centaur battling --ca 750-730 BCEExample of a composite monster.Theme may have come from the Near East, but the Centaur is Greek. -- Note human legs in the front! -- Size indicates possible victor!
The Human Figure in Early Greek ArtApollo of Mantiklos 700-680 BCE Inscription scratched into the though indicates this was an offering to the sun god Apollo.Indicates interest in human anatomy.
Influences from the EastAmphora [2 handled storage jar] shows Eastern influence. This example: Proto-Corinthian. What are the Eastern influences? Also an example of the black-figure painting developed by the Corinthians. Painted figures in black. Then incised detail
Plan of Temple A, Prinias, Crete, ca. 625 BCE.The First Stone Temples Trading brought Egyptian influences to Greece before 630 BCE Including their monumental architecture. Carved stone lintel similar motifs as on the vases of the period.
The Human Figure in Archaic ArtEarly Greek statutes follow the Egyptian model the Kouros [young man] takes a very Egyptian pose.Differences:Liberated from the stone block interested in motion rather than stability. Are shown nude, with a perfect body. Kouros & Kore were ideals.
ca. 600 BCE
ComparisonDaedalic style: Triangles, flat features, slim waist, love of pattern.
The Human Figure in Archaic ArtThe Smiling Calf Bearer A citizen bringing an offering Athena. Perfect nudity, yet clothing indicated. Love of pattern. The Archiac smile appears. Probably used to indicate that the person is alive
The Human Figure in Archaic ArtThe Kroisos Kouros ca. 530 BCEA young hero slain in battleBody rendered in a more naturalistic manner.Head in proportion & face more rounded.Hair falls naturally.Traces of the original paints remains
The Human Figure in Archaic ArtKore were stylistically similar to kourosWearing a peplosBuried for 2 millenia, thus preserving the paint.Extended arm a break from Egypt.More natural, wearing a chiton & himation.Folds are assymetrical. Grasping & lifting chiton is equivalent of left foot forward in the Kore
Lady of Auxerre Peplos Kore ca. 530 BCE
The Human Figure in Archaic ArtKore from Acropolis ca. 520-510 BCE
Greek Architectural DevelopmentEarly ones made of wood and did not survive. [One wooden column preserved at Olympia]Later made of limestone or marble.Temple at Prianas - monumental with sculptures. 625 BCE.Began to follow the example of Egyptian columnar hallsAltars were outside the temple at the east end; worshippers gathered outside to worship.The temple housed the cult statue Greek temples were houses for the gods, not the followers.Figural statues appeared early in order to evoke human responses; temples built in high places. Acropolis = high city
Greek Architectural DevelopmentPLAN & PROPORTIONClose to the Mycenaen megaron in the early days.Order, compactness, symmetry.Proportion of end to sides 1 : 3Later approached 1 : 2, but not exactly.Related to harmony in music.
Plan (left) and restored cutaway view (right) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500490 BCE. Formed of single colonnades. Structure: Platform, Colonnade, Superstructure [entablature] Painted decoration was in the frieze area
Greek Architectural DevelopmentExample of early Doric: Decoration placed in parts that had no structural function the metope & pediments.Translation into stone of earlier timber architecture.The columns show entasis
Temple of Hera I, Paestum, ca. 550 BCE
Pediment SculpturesThe artistic issue was the triangular shape. Used figures that were standing, kneeling, leaning etc n.b. Animals have one end taller than the other!Identifies the central character, but not a narrative.The narrative was in the smaller areas of the pediment.
w. pediment, Temple of Artemis, Corfu ca 600-580 BCE
Caryatids & GiantsIonic temples of the 6th cen. BCE on Aegean Islands and Asia Minor [now Turkey] used human form for pillars. Caryatids
Reconstruction of theSiphnian Treasury, Delphi ca 530 BCE
Frieze from DelphiTreasuries were for the safe storage of votive offeringsIonic friezes ran around the building continuously. Representations of giantsThe caryatids were korai dressed in chiton & himation
Pediment frieze from Siphnian Treasury-- Delphi ca 530 BCE
SummaryGeometric statues & vases: Strong Asian influence, stylized with geometric patterns.Archaic Sculpture: Starts with, but moves away from Egptian influence.Temples: Influenced by near east. Move from the simple Cretan megaron, through Doric to Ionic. .Doric IonicSeverely plainHighly ornamentalEchinus convex Echinus small and supports and cushionlike bolster ending in scroll-like spiralsFrieze subdivided into Frieze left open to provide triglyphs and metopes continuous field for relief sculpturesMassive in appearanceLight and airy in appearance
TOPICSEarly & High Classical Period Temple of Zeus, Olympia Statuary: The Perfect Statue The Athenian Acropolis: Parthenon Propylaia Erechtheion Temple of Nike Late Classical Hellentistic
Early & High Classical: Architectural SculptureEast pediment Temple of Zeus, Olympia, ca 500-490 BCERepresents the chariot race between Pelops and King Oinomaos, the story told in Aeschylus Oresteia.
Architectural SculptureThe seer who knows the future is the only one who reactsEast pediment Temple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BCE
Architectural SculptureLabors of Herakles, metope TheTemple of Zeus, Olympia, 470-456 BCEThe attitude (more human and emotional) and dress (simple Doric clothing) contrast with the elaborately clothed, always smiling Late Archaic style statues. Contrapposto, the shifting of weight to create counterbalance, was a large step towards the depiction of natural movement.Poses of the Late Archaic period were inspired by Egyptian rigidity and frontality and did not accurately show how real human beings stand.
Charioteer from Delphi, ca. 470 BCE
Hollow-casting life-size bronze sculpture
SculptureZeus or Poseidon, ca. 460-450 BCE
Classical vs Archaic statuaryRiace Warrior, Italy ca. 460-450 BCE. Compare with Kritoi Boy
Roman CopiesMade in marble ca. 450 BCEThe discus thrower was part of a search for an ideal form.Beauty, Chrysippus feels, resides not in the commensurability (symmetria) of the constituents (i.e. of the body), but in the commensurability of parts, such as the finger to the finger, and of all the fingers to the metacarpus and the wrist (carpus), and of these to the forearm, and of the the forearm to the