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  • Cleide O. A. Mller e-mail: clemo@food.dtu.dk

    Tina B. Hansen

    HACCP Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points

    National Food Institute, DTU, Mrkhj Bygade, DK-2860 Sborg, Denmark.

  • HACCP Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points What is HACCP? History of HACCP Definition of HACCP terms HACCP principles HACCP methodology

  • 02/10/2008HACCP3 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

  • 02/10/2008HACCP4 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    http://www.nytimes.com

    OUTBREAKS

    Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points

    FOOD SAFETY

    http://www.cm.iparenting.com/fc/editor_files/images/1042/Articles/Feeding_Baby.jpg

  • 02/10/2008HACCP5 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    What is HACCP?

    HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation and control of hazards in a particular food operation.

    (Codex Alimentarius, 1997)

    HACCP planhttp://nhs.ky.gov/nslsbp/CD_ROM/haccp/Presentations/Ch1.ppt

  • 02/10/2008HACCP6 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP history (I)

    1960s NASA developed and used the approach for production of safe foods for manned space flights

    1970s The concept was presented to the public by the American Public Health Association at the National Conference of Food Protection in 1971

    Low-acid canning industry and large corporations adopted the concept

    1980s The concept evolved and gained acceptance throughout the world

    A further development into a system was released by ICMSF in 1988

  • 02/10/2008HACCP7 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP history (II)1990s The concept re-ermerged to become the primary

    approach to assure safe foods

    Several international guidelines for the application of the concept were published, e.g. by Codex in 1993 and FAO/WHO in 1995

    EEC Directive on Food Hygiene (Dir. 93/43 EEC, 1995) places full responsibility for safety of food on the producers who have to implement a control system based on the principles of HACCP

    The need for management commitment identified by Codex in 1997

    2000s Harmonization of the use of HACCP

    Integration of HACCP into ISO management standards, ISO 22000 available from 2005

  • 02/10/2008HACCP8 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    Definition of HACCP terms (I)

    HAZARD

    1988 Unacceptable contamination, growth or survival of bacteria in food that may affect food safety or quality or unacceptable production or persistence in foods of substances such as toxins, enzymes or products of microbial metabolism

    1997A biological, chemical, or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect

    RISK

    1988An estimate of the probability or likelihood of a hazards occurring

    1997Not used but .....

    the likely occurrence of hazards and severity of their adverse health effect

  • 02/10/2008HACCP9 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    Definition of HACCP terms (II)

    CRITICAL CONTROL POINT CCP

    A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level

    Visual observations

    Sensory evaluation Measurements Tests

  • 02/10/2008HACCP10 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP principles

    1. Conduct a hazard analysis2. Determine the Critical Control Points (CCP)3. Establish critical limit(s)4. Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP5. Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring

    indicates that a particular CCP is not under control6. Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the

    HACCP system is working effectively7. Establish documentation concerning all procedures and

    records appropriate to these principles and their application

    (from Codex Alimentarius, 1997)

  • 02/10/2008HACCP11 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology the 12 tasks

    Scientific

    basis

    Control

    procedures

    1. Assemble HACCP team2. Describe product3. Identify intended use4. Construct flow diagram (FD)5. On-site confirmation of FD6. List all potential hazards, conduct hazard

    analysis, identify control measures

    7. Determine CCPs8. Establish critical limits for each CCP9. Establish monitoring system for each CCP10. Establish corrective actions11. Establish verification procedures12. Establish documentation and record

    keeping

    HA

    CC

    P d

    ata

    sheet

    From: ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/Booklets/Hygiene/FoodHygiene_2003e.pdf

  • 02/10/2008HACCP12 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology - hazard analysis

    A. Hazard identificationB. Hazard rankingC. Identification of control measures

  • 02/10/2008HACCP13 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology - hazard identification

    Raw material & process

    Is the presence of a potential hazard in raw material probable?

    Is an unacceptable level, survival, persistence or increase at this step probable?

    Process environment

    Is the presence of a potential hazard in the line or the environment probable?

    Is an unacceptable contamination at this step probable?

    Is reduction, if any, at a further step adequate? HAZARD

    No hazard

    No hazard

    YES

    YES

    YES

    NO NO

    YES

    NO NO

    NO*YES*

    Questions to be answered for each potential hazard at each step

    Adopted from ILSI (1997)

  • 02/10/2008HACCP14 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology - hazard ranking

    High

    Medium

    Low

    Mild Moderate Severe

    Severity

    Like

    ly o

    ccur

    renc

    e

    4-class hazard significant matrix

    Prevalence in raw material

    Possibility to survive process

    Possibility to grow in product

    Symptoms

    DurationMortality

    Transmission

  • 02/10/2008HACCP15 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology - hazard ranking

    Characteristics Rating value

    Initial symptoms:No medical treatment 1Medical treatment 2Hospitalization 3

    Illness duration and mortality:A few hours/days 1A few weeks/months 2Long-lasting/permanent effects 3Death 4

    Pathogen transmission:Food ingestion only 1Food ingestion followed byperson-to-person spread or other routes 2

    MILD

    Sum = 3-4

    Severity rating

    MODERATE

    Sum = 5-6

    SEVERE

    Sum = 7-8

    From: Todd & Harwig (1996) J. Food Prot. Suppl., 10-18

  • 02/10/2008HACCP16 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology control measures

    CONTROL MEASURE

    Any action and activity that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level

  • 02/10/2008HACCP17 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    Questions to be asked for each raw material used

    HACCP methodology - determine CCPs

    Q1. Is it likely that the raw material contains the hazard under study at unacceptable levels?

    Q2. Will processing, including expected consumer use, eliminate the hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level?

    YESNot a CCP

    NO

    Raw material must be regarded as a CCP for this hazard

    YES

    NO

    Adopted from ILSI (1997)

  • 02/10/2008HACCP18 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology determine CCPsQuestions to be asked for each process step

    Q3. Is the formulation/composition of the intermediate product/final product essential for preventing the hazard under study from increasing to unacceptable levels?

    Not a CCPFormulation is a CCP for this hazard

    Q4. Is it likely that, at this step, a hazard will be introduced or an existing hazard will increase to unacceptable levels?

    Q5. Will subsequent processing steps, including expected consumer use, guarantee removal of the hazard or reduction it to an acceptable level?

    Q6. Is the process step intended to eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level?

    This process step must be regarded as a CCP for this hazard

    YES

    NO

    NO

    YES

    YES NO

    YES

    NO

    Adopted from ILSI (1997)

  • 02/10/2008HACCP19 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology HACCP data sheet

    Point of control

    Hazard Condition leading to

    hazard

    Control measure

    CCP parameter

    Critical limit

    Target value

    Monitoring Corrective action

  • 02/10/2008HACCP20 DTU Food, Technical University of Denmark

    HACCP methodology HACCP data sheet

    Point of control

    Hazard Condition leading to

    hazard

    Control measure

    CCP parameter

    Critical limit

    Target value

    Monitoring Corrective action

    tempe-rature pasteuri-zation

    Listeria monocy-togenes

    Survival efter treatment

    Heat Time and tempe-rature

    A pasteuri-zation value of 2 min at 70C or equivalent time/tempcomb. in the centre of the thickest product

    62C in centre for 30 min.

    Tempe-rature and time measure-ment in centre of the thickest product

    Prolong pasteuri-zation until critical limit is met

    Example: Sous-vide cooked roast beef Shelf-life of 3 weeks at

  • Food Quality and Standards Service Food and Nutrition Division

    FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

    Rome, 1998

    Food Quality and Safety Systems - A Training Manual onFood Hygiene and the Hazard Analysis and CriticalControl Point (HACCP) System

    http://www.fao.or

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