History of political ideas 1st lecture. Introduction. Ideas of Classical Antiquity Lecturer: Marosán, Bence

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>History of political ideas 1st lecture. Introduction. Ideas of Classical Antiquity Lecturer: Marosn, Bence Slide 2 We stand today at a crossroads: One path leads to despair and utter hopelessness. The other leads to total extinction. Let us hope we have the wisdom to make the right choice. Woody Allen Slide 3 Division of the semester 1st lecture: Introduction and Classical Antiquity. 1st lecture: Introduction and Classical Antiquity. 2nd lecture: Political ideas of the Middle Ages. Church and state in medieval Europe. The investiture controversy. 2nd lecture: Political ideas of the Middle Ages. Church and state in medieval Europe. The investiture controversy. 3rd lecture: Political ideas of early Modern Age. Separation of Church and State. The Separation of powers, and the importance of institutions. Machiavelli, Hobbes, Montesquieu. 3rd lecture: Political ideas of early Modern Age. Separation of Church and State. The Separation of powers, and the importance of institutions. Machiavelli, Hobbes, Montesquieu. 4th lecture: Political ideas of 19th century. Birth of modern streams of political thinking. Liberalism, conservativism and left- wing movements, (Marx and Marxism). 4th lecture: Political ideas of 19th century. Birth of modern streams of political thinking. Liberalism, conservativism and left- wing movements, (Marx and Marxism). 5th lecture: Political movements, thinkers and ideas in the 20th century. Neoliberalism, Social democracy, Neomarxism, Neoconservativism. 5th lecture: Political movements, thinkers and ideas in the 20th century. Neoliberalism, Social democracy, Neomarxism, Neoconservativism. Slide 4 Main features of a political theory A political theory treats the principles, guide-lines, norms and values according to which (in the thinkers opinion) the society has to organize its institutions, functions, structures, hierarchy and its general way of working. A political theory treats the principles, guide-lines, norms and values according to which (in the thinkers opinion) the society has to organize its institutions, functions, structures, hierarchy and its general way of working. The aim of a political theory is to find the best way of running a society and a state. The aim of a political theory is to find the best way of running a society and a state. The political thinker in question has to argue for his or her ideas, so for his or her opinion according to which she/he finds some values to be the best for a society. The political thinker in question has to argue for his or her ideas, so for his or her opinion according to which she/he finds some values to be the best for a society. She or he has to fix the most basic values according to which the society or the state has to organize itself, and its particular way of functioning. So: she or he has to say what she/he thinks to be the most important in regard of a society: the preserving the traditional values of a nation (conservativism), guaranteeing the invulnerability of sphere of personal, individual freedom (liberalism), social justice and the defense of the rights of the needy (left-wing movements, Social democracy). She or he has to fix the most basic values according to which the society or the state has to organize itself, and its particular way of functioning. So: she or he has to say what she/he thinks to be the most important in regard of a society: the preserving the traditional values of a nation (conservativism), guaranteeing the invulnerability of sphere of personal, individual freedom (liberalism), social justice and the defense of the rights of the needy (left-wing movements, Social democracy). Slide 5 F. Fukuyama: The end of history thesis We may wittnessing the end of history as such: that is the tend point of mankinds ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.... Some conflicts may happan in places in the Third World, but the global conflict is over and not sust in EuropeThe war of ideas is at an end also. Believers in Marxist- Leninism may still exist in places like Managua, Pyongyang, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, but overall liberal democracy has triumphed. The future will be devoted not to great exhilarating struggles over ideas but rather to resolving mundane economic and technical problems. It will all be rather boring. F. Fukuyama Slide 6 S. Huntington: The clash of civilization thesis There are two important theme of the future: There are two important theme of the future: First, the crucial impact of population growth on instability and balance of power. First, the crucial impact of population growth on instability and balance of power. The second, lashes of civilizations are the greatest threats to world peace, and an international order based on civilizations in the safeguard against world war. The second, lashes of civilizations are the greatest threats to world peace, and an international order based on civilizations in the safeguard against world war. Slide 7 Main features of a political theory A political theory treats the principles, guide-lines, norms and values according to which (in the thinkers opinion) the society has to organize its institutions, functions, structures, hierarchy and its general way of working. A political theory treats the principles, guide-lines, norms and values according to which (in the thinkers opinion) the society has to organize its institutions, functions, structures, hierarchy and its general way of working. The aim of a political theory is to find the best way of running a society and a state. The aim of a political theory is to find the best way of running a society and a state. The political thinker in question has to argue for his or her ideas, so for his or her opinion according to which she/he finds some values to be the best for a society. The political thinker in question has to argue for his or her ideas, so for his or her opinion according to which she/he finds some values to be the best for a society. She or he has to fix the most basic values according to which the society or the state has to organize itself, and its particular way of functioning. So: she or he has to say what she/he thinks to be the most important in regard of a society: the preserving the traditional values of a nation (conservativism), guaranteeing the invulnerability of sphere of personal, individual freedom (liberalism), social justice and the defense of the rights of the needy (left-wing movements, Social democracy). She or he has to fix the most basic values according to which the society or the state has to organize itself, and its particular way of functioning. So: she or he has to say what she/he thinks to be the most important in regard of a society: the preserving the traditional values of a nation (conservativism), guaranteeing the invulnerability of sphere of personal, individual freedom (liberalism), social justice and the defense of the rights of the needy (left-wing movements, Social democracy). Slide 8 Classical antiquity. The sophists In the Greek polis (state) there was an intensive political life, and there was a comfortably complex and structured system of political institutions which helped the emergence of political ideas and theories concerning these institutions and the essence of society (polis) as such. In the Greek polis (state) there was an intensive political life, and there was a comfortably complex and structured system of political institutions which helped the emergence of political ideas and theories concerning these institutions and the essence of society (polis) as such. The ancient Greek society econimically was based upon slave-labour. The layer of matured, aristocratic, free, wealthy Greek citizens had accordingly lot of free-time, and they had as an obvious way of career the field of politics. The ancient Greek society econimically was based upon slave-labour. The layer of matured, aristocratic, free, wealthy Greek citizens had accordingly lot of free-time, and they had as an obvious way of career the field of politics. In the fifth century BC, which was also called the period of Greek Enlightenment, many itinerant (or travelling) teachers, philosophers treated the problem of society, social norms, ethics, and the question of politics in Greece. They mainly taught techniques and practics of rhetorics and public political speeches which helped their students to convince their audience, and to make a career in the political life of the Greek polis of their age. In the fifth century BC, which was also called the period of Greek Enlightenment, many itinerant (or travelling) teachers, philosophers treated the problem of society, social norms, ethics, and the question of politics in Greece. They mainly taught techniques and practics of rhetorics and public political speeches which helped their students to convince their audience, and to make a career in the political life of the Greek polis of their age. They were called: the Sophists (philosophers, wise, learnt, professional men). They usually came from the poorer layer, so they taught the subjects and topics which were much in demand: the tricks and master- strokes of political success. They were called: the Sophists (philosophers, wise, learnt, professional men). They usually came from the poorer layer, so they taught the subjects and topics which were much in demand: the tricks and master- strokes of political success. Slide 9 Classical authors. Socrates. Socrates (470-399 BC) was a contemporaneous philosopher to the sophists. He did not accept money for teaching, but was not entirely unpropertied, unlike the latter: he received a ground-rent from the polis of Athens. Socrates (470-399 BC) was a contemporaneous philosopher to the sophists. He did not accept money for teaching, but was not entirely unpropertied, unlike the latter: he received a ground-rent from the polis of Athens. He was one of the most influential philosophers ever lived. He taught in speech, he didnt wrote down anything, his students and followers preserved his ideas and thoughts. He was one of the most influential philosophers ever lived. He taught in speech, he didnt wrote down anything, his students and followers preserved his ideas and thoughts. He had a very open, straightforward, critical and for a certain degree confrontative and provocative manner. For this reason he made many enemies and oponents of himself in the Athenian public life. He had a very open, straightforward, critical and for a certain degree confrontative and provocative manner. For this reason he made many enemies and oponents of himself in the Athenian public life. At the end of his life the Jury of Athens sentenced him to death, on the basis of the following charges: failing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges, introducing new deities and corrupts the youth which accusation was in fact false. He was executed. At the end of his life the Jury of Athens sentenced him to death, on the basis of the following charges: failing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges, introducing new deities and corrupts the youth which accusation was in fact false. He was executed. Slide 10 The trial of Socrates, (399BC) The assumed basis of the two charges: The assumed basis of the two charges: 1. [F]ailing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges, introducing new deities. 1. [F]ailing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges, introducing new deities. Socrates in fact spoke often about his daimon (guiding and guarding spirit), who told him which is right and which is wrong. Socrates in fact spoke often about his daimon (guiding and guarding spirit), who told him which is right and which is wrong. Socrates taught that someone has to critically investigate the traditions and the generally accepted norms before he or she accepts them. Socrates taught that someone has to critically investigate the traditions and the generally accepted norms before he or she accepts them. 2. Socrates corrupts the youth. Kritika! (egyszerbb) daimon. A hagyomny kritikai megrtse. 2. Socrates corrupts the youth. Kritika! (egyszerbb) daimon. A hagyomny kritikai megrtse. Socrates encouraged his students and followers to apply his critical method themselves too, before they accept anything. Socrates encouraged his students and followers to apply his critical method themselves too, before they accept anything. We could interpret Socrates daimon as the voice of the conscience. We could interpret Socrates daimon as the voice of the conscience. In fact Socrates demonstrated that these charges are insupportable, notwithstanding he was condemned. In fact Socrates demonstrated that these charges are insupportable, notwithstanding he was condemned. Plato reported the details of trials of Socrates in three of his dialogues: Apology, Crito, Phaedo. Plato reported the details of trials of Socrates in three of his dialogues: Apology, Crito, Phaedo. Slide 11 The ethical theory of Socrates He thought that the authentic personality could differentiate between right and wrong so he acts in a morally right way. He thought that the authentic personality could differentiate between right and wrong so he acts in a morally right way. He supposed an internal relationship between virtue and knowledge. For this reason the ethical conception of Socrates also called the intellectualist interpretation of ethics. He supposed an internal relationship between virtue and knowledge. For this reason the ethical conception of Socrates also called the intellectualist interpretation of ethics. He perceived the well-known contradiction: one could act in a wrong, or even evil way consciously. His solution: He perceived the well-known contradiction: one could act in a wrong, or even evil way consciously. His solution: The real knowledge: is to know the most probable consequences of our actions. The ethically or morally right behavior leads the individual to the happiness. The wrong or evil actions, behavior does not lead to happiness so those, who act this way, do not really know their own real interests, they only believe and pretend that they know it. The real knowledge: is to know the most probable consequences of our actions. The ethically or morally right behavior leads the individual to the happiness. The wrong or evil actions, behavior does not lead to happiness so those, who act this way, do not really know their own real interests, they only believe and pretend that they know it. Socrates ethics is called eudaimonism, so which has the happiness as its highest principle. Socrates thought that the morally right is in the end identical with the happy life. Socrates ethics is called eudaimonism, so which has the happiness as its highest principle. Socrates thought that the morally right is in the end identical with the happy life. Socrates thought that the morally right is identical with the happiness, and b...</p>