ift6802 - h03 commerce electronique agents presentation adaptée des notes de adina florea cours a...

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Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

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Page 1: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Ift6802 - H03

Commerce electroniqueAgents

Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina FloreaCours a Worcester Polytechnic

Page 2: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Lecture outlineLecture outline Motivation for agents Definitions of agents agent

characteristics, taxonomy Agents and objects Multi-Agent Systems Agents intelligence Examples

Page 3: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Contexte de techno agentsContexte de techno agents

Besoin de composantes logicielles robustes et flexibles

Opportunisme: prendre avantage de ressources disponibles

Prévoir l’exploitation de l’imprévisible

Autonomie, intelligence, évolution

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Page 4: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Motivations for agentsMotivations for agents

Large-scale, complex, distributed systems: understand, built, manage

Open and heterogeneous systems - build components independently

Distribution of resources Distribution of expertise Needs for personalization and customization Interoperability with legacy systems

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Page 5: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Questions: Questions: Programs or agents?Programs or agents?

a thermostat with a sensor for detecting room temperature

electronic calendar (arranges meetings) Email system with messages sorted by date Email with messages sorted by order of importance

and SPAM deleted Bidding program for electronic auctions

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Page 6: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Agent?Agent?

The term agent is used frequently nowadays in:• Sociology, Biology, Cognitive Psychology, Social

Psychology, and

• Computer Science AI

Why agents? What are they in Computer Science? Do they bring us anything new in modelling and

constructing our applications? Much discussion of what (software) agents are and of how

they differ from programs in general

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Page 7: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

What is an agent (en informatique)?What is an agent (en informatique)?

There is no universally accepted definition of the term agent and there is a good deal of ongoing debate and controversy on this subject

The situation is somehow comparable with the one encountered when defining artificial intelligence.

Confluence de plusieurs groupes de recherche:

– Informatique distribuée

– IA

– Sociologie & Economie

– Vie artificielle / simulation

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Page 8: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

More than 30 years ago, computer scientists set themselves to create artefacts with the capacities of an intelligent person (artificial intelligence ).

Now we are facing the challenge to emulate or simulate the way human act in their environment, interact with one another, cooperatively solve problems or act on behalf of others, solve more and more complex problems by distributing tasks or enhance their problem solving performances by competition.

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Page 9: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Are agents intelligent?

Not necessarily.

Not to enter a debate about what intelligence is

Agent = more often defined by its characteristics - many of them may be considered as a manifestation of some aspect of intelligent behaviour.

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Page 10: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Agent definitionsAgent definitions

“Most often, when people use the term ‘agent’ they refer to an entity that functions continuously and autonomously in an environment in which other processes take place and other agents exist.” (Shoham, 1993)

“An agent is an entity that senses its environment and acts upon it” (Russell, 1997)

Page 11: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

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Agent & Environment

Agent

Environment

SensorInput

ActionOutput

Page 12: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

“Autonomous agents are computational systems that inhabit some complex dynamic environment, sense and act autonomously in this environment, and by doing so realise a set of goals or tasks for which they are designed.” (Maes 1995)

“Intelligent agents continuously perform three functions: perception of dynamic conditions in the environment; action to affect conditions in the environment; and reasoning to interpret perceptions, solve problems, draw inferences, and determine actions. (Hayes-Roth 1995)”

“Intelligent agents are software entities that carry out some set of operations on behalf of a user or another program, with some degree of independence or autonomy, and in so doing, employ some knowledge or representation of the user’s goals or desires.” (the IBM Agent) 12

Page 13: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Niveaux d’agentsNiveaux d’agents

– Loop

• percevoir environnement et attendre qqc a faire

• decider quoi faire

• prendre action

Controlleur réactifs

– Daemon logiciels

– Thermostat , spool in/out, serveurs

Page 14: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Identified characteristicsIdentified characteristics

Two main streams of definitions Define an agent in isolation Define an agent in the context of a society of

agents social dimension MAS

Two types of definitions Does not necessary incorporate intelligence Must incorporate a kind of IA behaviour

intelligent agents14

Page 15: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

“Interesting Agent = a hardware or software-based computer system that enjoys the following properties:

autonomy - agents operate without the direct intervention of humans or others, and control their actions and state;

reactivity: agents perceive their environment and respond in a timely fashion to changes that occur in it;

complexity: manipulating the environment is not trivial

pro-activeness: agents do not simply act in response to their environment, they are able to exhibit goal-directed behaviour by taking initiative.”

social ability - agents interact with other agents (and possibly humans) via some kind of agent- language;

(Wooldridge and Jennings, 1995)

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Page 16: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Agents characteristics

function continuously / persistent software sense the environment and acts upon it / reactivity act on behalf of a user or a / another program autonomous purposeful action / pro-activity

goal-directed behavior vs reactive behaviour?goal-directed behavior vs reactive behaviour? mobility ?

intelligence?intelligence? Goals, rationality Reasoning, decision making cognitivecognitive Learning/adaptation Interaction with other agents - social dimension

Other basis for intelligence?16

Page 17: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

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Agent Environment

Agent

Environment

SensorInput

ActionOutput

Environment properties

- Accessible vs inaccessible

- Deterministic vs nondeterministic

- Episodic vs non-episodic

- Static vs dynamic

- Open vs closed

- Contains or not other agents

Page 18: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Interactions among agents- high-level

interactions Interactions for - coordination

- communication- organization

Coordination collectively motivated / interested self interested

- own goals / indifferent- own goals / competition / competing for the same resources- own goals / competition / contradictory goals- own goals / coalitions 18

MAS - many agents in the same environmentMAS - many agents in the same environment

Page 19: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Communication

communication protocol

communication language

- negotiation to reach agreement

- ontology Organizational structures

centralized vs decentralized

hierarchical/ markets

"cognitive agent" "cognitive agent" approachapproach

MAS systems?MAS systems? Electronic calendars Air-traffic control system 19

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The wise men problem

A king wishing to know which of his three wise men is the wisest, paints a white spot on each of their foreheads, tells them at least one spot is white, and asks each to determine the color of his spot.

After a while the smartest announces that his spot is white

Page 21: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Agents vs Objects

Les agents sont le résultat d’une progression continue dans l’évolution des concepts d’abstraction en informatique.

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Page 22: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Agents vs Objects Autonomy - stronger - agents have sole control over their

actions, an agent may refuse or ask for compensation Flexibility - Agents are reactive, like objects, but also pro-

active Agents are usually persistent Own thread of control

Agents vs MAS Coordination - as defined by designer, no contradictory goals Communication - higher level communication than object

messages Organization - no explicit organizational structures for objects No prescribed rational/intelligent behaviour

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Page 23: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Ferber: An agent is a physical or virtual entity

1. which is capable of acting in an environment.

2. which can communicate directly with other agents.

3. which is driven by a set of tendencies (in the form of individual objectives or of a satisfaction/survival function which it tries to optimize).

4. which possesses resources of its own.

5. which is capable of perceiving its environment (but to a limited extent).

6. which has only a partial representation of its environment (and perhaps none at all).

7. which possesses skills and can offer services.

8. which may be able to reproduce itself.

9. whose behaviour tends towards satisfying its objectives, taking account of the resources and skills available to it and depending on its perception, its

representation and the communications it receives. 23

Page 24: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Ferber: Multi Agent System

1. An environment E, that is, a space which generally has volume.

2. A set of objects, O. These objects are situated, that is to say, it is possible at a given moment to associate any object with a position in E.

3. An assembly of agents, A, which are specific objects (a subset of O), represent the active entities in the system.

4. An assembly of relations, R, which link objects (and therefore, agents) to one another.

5. An assembly of operations, Op, making it possible for the agents of A to perceive, produce, transform, and manipulate objects in O.

6. Operators with the task of representing the application of these operations and the reaction of the world to this attempt at modification, which we shall call the

laws of the universe.

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Page 25: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

There are two important special cases of this general definition.

Purely situated agents

An example would be a robot. In this case E, the environment, is Euclidean 3-space. A are the robots, and O, not only other robots but physical objects such as obstacles. These are situated agents.

Pure Communication Agents

If A = O and E is empty, then the agents are all interlinked in a communication networks and communicate by sending messages. We have a purely communicating MAS.

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Page 26: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

How do agents acquire intelligence?Cognitive agents

The model of human intelligence and human perspective of the world characterise an intelligent agent using symbolic representations and mentalistic notions:

knowledge - John knows humans are mortal

beliefs - John took his umbrella because he believed it was going to rain

desires, goals - John wants to possess a PhD

intentions - John intends to work hard in order to have a PhD

choices - John decided to apply for a PhD

commitments - John will not stop working until getting his PhD

obligations - John has to work to make a living

(Shoham, 1993) 26

Page 27: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Premises Such a mentalistic or intentional view of agents - a kind of

"folk psychology" - is not just another invention of computer scientists but is a useful paradigm for describing complex distributed systems.

The complexity of such a system or the fact that we can not know or predict the internal structure of all components seems to imply that we must rely on animistic, intentional explanation of system functioning and behaviour.

Is this the only way agents can acquire intelligence?

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Page 28: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Comparison with AI - alternate approach of realizing intelligence - the sub-symbolic level of neural networks

An alternate model of intelligence in agent systems.

Reactive agents

Simple processing units that perceive and react to changes in their environment.

Do not have a symbolic representation of the world and do not use complex symbolic reasoning.

The advocates of reactive agent systems claims that intelligence is not a property of the active entity but it is distributed in the system, and steams as the result of the interaction between the many entities of the distributed structure and the environment. 28

Page 29: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

The problem of pray and predators

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Reactive approachThe preys emit a signal whose intensity decreases in proportion to distance - plays the role of attractor for the predatorsHunters emit a signal which acts as a repellant for other hunters, so as not to find themselves at the same placeEach hunter is each attracted by the pray and (weakly) repelled by the other hunters

Cognitive approachDetection of prey animalsSetting up the hunting team; allocation of rolesReorganisation of teamsNecessity for dialogue/comunication and for coordinationPredator agents have goals, they appoint a leader that organize the distribution

of work and coordinate actions

Page 30: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

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Player A/ Player B Cooperate Defect

Cooperate Fairly good (+5) Bad (-10)

Defect Good (+10) Mediocre (0)

The problem of Prisoner's DilemmaOutcomes for actor A (in words, and in hypothetical "points") depending on the combination of A's action and B's action, in the "prisoner's dilemma" game situation. A similar scheme applies to the outcomes for B.

The wise men problem

A king wishing to know which of his three wise men is the wisest, paints a white spot on each of their foreheads, tells them at least one spot is white, and asks each to determine the color of his spot.

After a while the smartest announces that his spot is white

Page 31: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Is intelligence only optimal action towards a a goal? Only rational behaviour?

Emotional agents A computable science of emotions Virtual actors

– Listen trough speech recognition software to people

– Respond, in real time, with morphing faces, music, text, and speech

Emotions:– Appraisal of a situation as an event: joy, distress;

– Presumed value of a situation as an effect affecting another: happy-for, gloating, resentment, jealousy, envy, sorry-for;

– Appraisal of a situation as a prospective event: hope, fear;

– Appraisal of a situation as confirming or disconfirming an expectation: satisfaction, relief, fears-confirmed, disappointment

Manifest temperament control of emotions

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Page 32: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Areas of R&D in MASAreas of R&D in MAS Agent architectures Knowledge representation: of world, of itself, of the other agents Distributed search Coordination Planning: task sharing, result sharing, distributed planning Communication: languages, protocols Decision making: negotiation, markets, coalition formation Organizational theories Learning Implementation:

– Agent programming: paradigms, languages– Agent platforms– Middleware, mobility, security

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Page 33: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Agents and MAS ApplicationsAgents and MAS Applications Industrial applications: real-time monitoring and

management of manufacturing and production process, telecommunication networks, transportation systems, eletricity distribution systmes, etc.

Business process management, decision support ecommerce, emarkets information retrieving and filtering PDAs Human-computer interaction Entertainment CAI, Web-based learning CSCW

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Page 34: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Some examplesSome examples PDAs

used as interface with the user : manage the interactions with other assistant agents (meeting organisation, ...) and with other types of agent (information search, service, contract negotiation, ...)

Server agents“terminal services”

Bounded to applications s.a. database, thematic servers, etc. Achieve a “terminal” service encapsulated in agents

“intermediate services” Provide services with an added-value since they brought together terminal services.

In a travel agency scenario: it corresponds to the integration of services such as “Hotel reservation”, “flight reservation” … 34

Page 35: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Some examplesSome examples Marketing agents “commercial” agents: used to inform potential users about

their services, offers, etc. (broker, intermediate services and assistants)

“buyer” agents: negotiate the prices of services “broker” agents that move on the net and look for interesting

information for the user.

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Page 36: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

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Intelligent Interfaces (server)Intelligent Interfaces (server)

Interaction

Naturel Languagelinguistic analysers

LearningObservation

Trace - Analysis

User

‘‘clone’’ agentModeling users’habits

Application

Interaction

SpecialisedAgents

Dialog Box

Speech Acts Communication protocols

Example : The agent Artimis (CNET)

Page 37: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

Information Agents

Internetthemticchain

Agentsort-selection

theme1

Sender

Sender

Subscription Publication

SenderInternet

theme2

themek

Push Push TechnologyTechnology

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Page 38: Ift6802 - H03 Commerce electronique Agents Presentation adaptée des notes de Adina Florea Cours a Worcester Polytechnic

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Are these example of agents?Are these example of agents?If yes, are they intelligent?If yes, are they intelligent?

Thermostat ex.

Electronic calendar

Present a list of email messages sorted by date

Present a list of email messages sorted by order of importance

- act on behalf of a user or a / another program- autonomous- sense the environment and acts upon it / reactivity- purposeful action / pro-activity- function continuously / persistent software- goals, rationality- reasoning, decision making- learning/adaptation- social dimension