indoor exposure to radon from the group and bronchial cancer in women
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carotene and the risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung was observed (relative odds, 4.30; 95 per cent con- fidence limits, 1.38 and 13.41). Mean (+ or - SD) levels of vitamin E were lower among the cases than the controls (10.5 + or - 3.2 vs. 11.9 + or - 4.90 mg per liter), when all histologic types of cancer were considered together. In addition, a linear trend in risk was found (P = 0.04), so that persons with serum levels of vitamin E in the lowest quintile had a 2.5 times higher risk of lung cancer than persons with levels in the highest quintile. These data support an association be- tween low levels of serum vitamin E and the risk of any type of lung cancer and between low levels of serum beta- carotene and the risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung.
Indoor Exposure to Radon from the Group and Bronchial Cancer in Women. Svensson, C., Eklund, G., Pershagen, G. Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Institute, S- 104 01 Stockholm, Sweden. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 59: 123-131, 1987.
A case-referent study on the pos- sible association between radon emanat- ing from the group and bronchial cancer was carried out on 292 female lung can- cer cases and 584 matched population referents. Both groups had lived for at least 30 years in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The cases were diag- nosed during 1972 to 1980 with oat-cell and other types of anaplastic pulmonary carcinomas. A sample of about 10% of the dwellings where cases and referents had lived was selected for measurements of radon and radon daughters. There was a relative risk of 2.2 (P = 0.01) for lung cancer associated with living in dwellings close to the ground in areas with an increased risk of radon emanation. Smoking habits did not ap- pear to be a major confounding factor for this association, although a detailed evaluation was not possible. The measurements indicated increased radon daughter concentrations in ground level dwellings within radonrisk areas where lung cancer cases had lived, sug- gesting that this exposure was of etiologic importance.
Lung Cancer and Women: Results of a French Case-Control Study. Benhamou, E., Benhamou, S., Flamant, R. Departement de Statistique Medicale, Institute Gustave Roussy, 94805 Vil- lejuif Cedex, France. Br. J. Cancer 55: 91-95, 1987.
Ninety-six women with histologi- cally confirmed lung cancer and 192 matched controls were involved in an international case-control study con-
ducted from 1976 to 1980. The aim of this study was an examination of the effects of different smoking habits, especially the type of cigarettes smoked (light or dark tobacco and fil- ter or nonfilter use) on the occurrence of lung cancer in French females. All these patients were either nonsmokers or lifetime cigarette smokers. Matched relative risk (RR) of smokers compared to nonsmokers was found to be increased for both Kreyberg I (RR = 6.6) and Kreyberg II (RR = 2.1) categories; however, this increase was significant (P < 0.0001) only for Kreyberg I lung cancer. A significant increase (P < 0.0001) in matched RR was found with early age at first cigarette smoked, daily consumption, duration of smoking, frequency of inhalation, use of dark tobacco and use of nonfilter cigarettes. Matched RR associated with smokers not always using dark tobacco and those smoking only dark tobacco as compared to nonsmokers were sig- nificantly increased (trend test P < 0.0001). On the contrary, the increase of RR was not significant when either daily consumption, or duration of smoking, or age at first cigarette was taken into account. Lung cancer ap- peared to be associated with daily con- sumption and use of nonfilter cigarettes in a matched logistic regression. Risk Factors for Adenocarcinoma of the Lung. Brownson, R.C., Reif, J.S., Keefe, T.J. et al. Cancer Epidemiology and Control Program, Division of Environmental Health and Epidemiology Services, Mis- souri Department of Health, P.O. Box 1268, Columbia, MO 65205, U.S.A. Am. J. Epidemiol. 125: 25-34, 1987.
The relation between various risk factors and adenocarcinoma of the lung was evaluated in a case-control study. Subjects were selected from the Colorado Central Cancer Registry from 1979-1982 in the Denver metropolitan area. A total of 102 (50 males and 52 females) adenocarcinoma case interviews and 131 (65 males and 66 females) con- trol interviews were completed. The control group consisted of persons with cancers of the colon and bone marrow. The risk estimates associated with cigarette smoking were significantly elevated among males (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49) and females (OR = 3.95) and were found to increase significantly (p < 0.01) with increasing levels of cigarette smoking for both males and females. For adenocarcinoma in females, the age- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios at different levels of passive smoke exposure followed an increasing overall trend (p = 0.05). After addi- tional adjustment for potential