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Intermediary cities at UCLG
Sara Hoeflich Program Manager, UCLG
• Intermediary Cities (IC) – Overview
• Characteristics/Dimensions considered
• Expected outcome from the seminar
• Challenges for Intermediary cities – Examples from Asia, Europe and Africa
Intermediary cities – Overview • Intermediate cities are defined by their intermediary roles and
functions rather than by their population size.
• The term intermediary introduces three dimensions:
• Be elements within urban system: its capacity to create relationships and create a network.
• offer new possibilities for self-affirmation, reinforce the city-region and consolidate relationships at regional, national global levels.
• replacing the static and notably hierarchical conceptualisations of the urban system identified in the most theories (DEMATTEIS, G., 1991).
Characteristics/Dimensions considered The Global dimensions
I cities have similar challenges and roles and problems
• LGA and networks expose International and national experiences, but more tangible contribution to international agenda needed
The national dimension
• Political context of decentralization crucial for IC agenda (local elections, comepetences)
• Financial dependence on other government levels
• Key actors in regional programs balanced territorial development
• Territorial dimension is specific because they are connected to the rural spaces, markets, services and populations
• Need more self esteem and contribution to global urban agendas,
• Land markets are not as limiting as in larger cities, allowing housing and services be affordable , but
• risk of urban sprawl is high
• Less capacity to access global, private and national finance
• lack of planning and public basic services (sanitation and water resolved individually, education ) urban sprawl reduces land management capacity
• However the potential to manage land and to implement integrated plans is higher than in large cities
Strategic planning in I cities ??
• The role of ICs in various countries and contexts
• Do they act as economic anchor or a central place for public services in rural areas? Are they the core of innovation in rural areas?
• Are they the core of Regional economic clusters?
• Do they act as a overspill town for overcrowded metropolitan areas?
• Are they the target places for de-concentration of public institutions such as Universities, etc.?
leadership and development: Where is the political strength of leaders intermediating between regional and national governments and stakeholder communities?
Territory: What is their most relevant interaction and with whom? Is it with surrounding rural areas or other Ics , Metros?
How is financial and administrative capacity, delivery of services?
What is their identity? How can they position and compete?
Challenges and strategies of Intermediary cities
Examples from Asia
• The density of population in urban Java is about 11800 persons per Sq.Km, which is quite high and also pose as a challenge in management.
• However, there is a great potential and possibilities for inter local government cooperation towards effective management.
Karta man tul
Sleman Aprox 300 ts
Yogayakarta Aprox 500 ts
Bantul Aprox 300ts
Karta mantul Urban growth beyond borders and id consequence of the potential
and quality of life of the city
• High density upto 16000 perkm2 causes overlapping of service interest
• for resolving conflicts commonly instead of strong coordinating institution such as the provincial government a joint secretariat is integrating cross-boundary urban infrastructure management.
• Negotiation members have different interests cooperation of local governments is a horizontal decision-making process
• Benefits in competitively and better quality of public services
• Kartamantul has been focusing on practical and feasible examples, to adress jointly the challenge of urban growth
Chennai and Arakkonam
Chennai and Arakkonam – proximity and interrelationship
Example from Arakkonam, India • Basic statistics:
• Population: 102,000 inhabitants (2011)
• Located at about 70 Km from Chennai, the fourth largest Metropolitan city in India.
• In terms of size, it is considered as a mid-sized town.
• It is not a planned development, and has concentration of population around the transportation nodes, especially the Arakkonam Railway station, which has trains at regular intervals to Chennai.
• This is an example for an Intermediary city, which acts as an overspill town for the crowded Metropolitan area.
• It has the required services and infrastructure to support the population and housing is cheaper than in Chennai.
• The cheap housing, connectivity to Chennai and other facilities in terms of secondary schools make this attractive for living and serves as an alternative for many having their jobs in Chennai.
Example from South America
Example from Bucaramanga, Colombia • Basic statistics:
• Population: 525.119 inhabitants (2011)
• Is intermediating and development streams for the region at national and international level 1
• centre for commerce, finance and services, as well as educational city for Colombian north east region.
• cooperates and 4 cities: Bucaramanga, Floridablanca, Girón y Piedecuesta. In total 1.1 million people
• Bucaramangas´s Fifth largest economy in Colombia.
• It is well known for its high quality of life and as a safe city.
• Second city in Colombian with the lowest Unemployment rate , 8.9% in 2011, and its population under poverty line is 10.8%.
• Public services coverage: Electricity: 99%, Natural gas: 100%, Water supply: 99%, Sewerage system 98%. Health programmes 100%
• 11 year basic education is free.
Freiburg, Germany BUCARAMANGA 98% urban population 2% rural
R I L
• Prepare to operate in larger scale:
• Implementing a Integrated Mobility System with bici paths and cableways, and a BRT (Bus Rapid Transit).
• Undergoing processes of slum upgrading called Mejoramiento Barrial
Examples from Europe
Example from Freiburg, Germany • Basic statistics:
• Population: 230,000 inhabitants (2011 census)
• Situated between the triangle round Basel, the region of Stuttgart and the Rhine-Neckar-Region. In close proximity to Basel and Mulhouse.
• Developed into a major commercial, intellectual, and ecclesiastical centre of the upper Rhine region.
• This is core of regional economic cluster and serves as an economic anchor
• Have small clusters of all inner-markets related to green alternative living
• Their inhabitants are involved in the alternative energy production.
• It also serves as a central place for public services in rural areas
• A very good example of local economic development for other Intermediary cities to follow.
The distribution of green and alternative technologies across the city
• ancient university
• high standard of living and advanced environmental practices.
• primary tourist entry point to the Black Forest.
Trans-border cooperation Freiburg-Basel-Mulhouse
• A new neighbourhood “sustainable model district” for more than 5,000 inhabitants and 600 jobs.
• Main goal: to implement a city district in a co-operative way, meets ecological, social, economical and cultural requirements.
• many resources became available: the biggest strength of the project is the involvement of people the ideas, creativity and commitment .
• Known as an almost car-free city
Vauban neighbourhood, Freiburg
Example of cooperation from Spain: Bilbao and Santander
Bilbao and Santander – proximity and interrelationship
• Bilbao and Santander:
• Santander, an Intermediary city has signed an agreement with the city of Bilbao.
• Initiative driven by the city of Bilbao "Ekintza" to become a "city pole" by cooperating with the surrounding six cities of Baiona, Pamplona, Logroño, Vitoria, San Sebastián and Santander for jointly promoting tourism, entrepreneurship and employment.
• The city administration of Santander received positive reaction from the population.
• This implies that the idea of Intermediation (leadership) is not only to be the driver but also be aware of opportunit