landscape study of ferny grove

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History, geological features, patch, corridor, matrix of the Ferny Grove area, Queensland, Australia.

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LANDSCAPE STUDY OF FERNY GROVE

LUKE BRINSMEAD - 06297498 DLB330 PEOPLE & ENVIRONMENT JAN 30/04/08 5,3531

CONTENTSINTRODUCTION HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDINTRODUCTION TO HISTORY GEOLOGICAL HISTORY FLORA ABORIGINAL CULTURAL HISTORY EUROPEAN PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENT 3 4 5 6 7

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METHODOLOGYTHEORY OF LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY PATCH-CORRIDOR-MATRIX MODEL 8 8

METHODSLANDSCAPE STRUCTURE LANDSCAPE NETWORKS LANDSCAPE DYNAMICS LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATIONS 9 9 10 10

RESULTSFINDINGS ON LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE FINDINGS ON LANDSCAPE NETWORKS FINDINGS ON LANDSCAPE DYNAMICS FINDINGS ON LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATIONS AND THE MATRIX IS... 10 12 14 16 16

DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES APPENDICES

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INTRODUCTIONThe aim of this report is to map patches and corridors to show these units in a more graphically understandable form and to use the principles of landscape ecology with this mapping to be potentially used in a landscape site assessment before any designing takes place. This landscape study predominately provides an analysis of the patch/corridor/ matrix concept for the Ferny Grove area. It documents the holistic history of the area including geological, aboriginal and european. The methodology introduces the reader to the landscape ecology theory and patch/corridor/matrix concept and how the criteria from these are used in this report, it can be used as a guide when reading through the results and discussion. Landscape structure, network, dynamics and transformations are used as the frame work in the methods. The results give findings of information about each of the different types of patches and corridors (networks) as well as the landscapes dynamics (flows etc.) and transformations. The discussion component has evaluations/reflections relating to the methods, methodology and results followed up by the conclusion which summarizes the whole report and provides suggestions for future improvement.

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HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDINTRODUCTION TO HISTORYSince volcanic eruptions more than 400 million years ago the Ferny Grove landscape has since had folding, uplifting, erosion, deposition, vegetation, human habitation, bush fires, vegetation clearing, geological extraction, cropping, urbanization and some revegetation. Most of the landscape structure one can see in present times has been the result of human habitation since the late nineteenth century and particularly since the middle of the twentieth century following the industrial revolution. It is important to learn the complete history of a landscape to enable a better understanding of the landscape patches/corridor/ matrix model.

GEOLOGICAL HISTORYVOLCANIC 400 million years ago the study area was a marine environment incorporating a number of volcanic islands extruding basaltic larva, somewhat like Hawaii. Within 50 million years the volcanic activity had decreased and marine shales were being deposited in areas of deep marine water. Some submarine volcanic activity occurred and following led to more marine sediments being deposited by submarine landslides. These landslides probably originated from the continental slope to the east or west of the study area. FOLDING AND UPLIFT 300 million years ago sedimentation ceased and there was a period of no deposition. Preceding that rocks were metamorphosed, folded and uplifted. The study area became a shallow marine environment, similar to a continental shelf, and sands, silt, mud and limestone were deposited. Some terrestrial volcanoes also formed and formed while andesite lava and ash was extruded over small areas. A period of folding or buckling of the sediments began 260 million years ago, this was accompanied by the emplacement of a number of igneous rock bodies. These molten masses of rock from beneath the crust intruded the sediments over the forthcoming 40 million years. The remnants of these of these intrusions are now exposed at the surface at various. DEPOSITION AND EROSION 205 million years ago volcanic activity and ash was falling on a sporadically vegetated surface with a few localized lakes, this ash was then metamorphosed and makes up the constituents of Porphyry (Brisbane Tuff rock.) During the preceding 10 million years there was an episode of folding and faulting which stopped deposition in the Ipswich basin and formed two new basins including the Moreton Basin. In the last 5 million years the major geological process has been erosion, this includes erosion by waterways, rainwater runoff, wind, waves and tidal movements. In the last 2 million years there have been a number of changes in sea level due to changes in the earths climate and crustal movements resulting in the complex deposition of alluvium. Some of the alluvium deposits are still increasing and the current deposition of alluvium, as well as erosion, are the only geological process occurring at the present time.

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FORERUNNERS OF THE RIVERS Rivers and creeks were connected by the Brisbane Strait. Large sheets of river deposited quartz sandstone were deposited over the lower areas of the land surface, this covered the exposed rocks which had formed in earlier times. River deposition continued for 43 million years. It started with the rivers as high energy waterways depositing gravels and course sands, over that period of time the environment developed into a low energy flow which resulted in the formation of swamps, estuaries and lakes with muds, silts, shale and some coal. Over a period of time these sediments were lithified to form rocks and were only gently folded when the region was uplifted 150 million years ago. There were no further deposition of sediments in the study area for another 85 million years, during that period the region was subjected to erosion.

SOILSThe soil type with the study area is classified as gravelly red and yellow loamy top soils over clay. Most of the soils within the study area are moderately fertile red and yellow earth derived from erosion of the rocks of the DAguilar Block. Silts and muds define the waterway boundaries within the study area and are generally more fertile due to their higher organic content.

FLORADRY SCLEROPHYLL FOREST Much of the study area is composed of dry sclerophyll forest, however many thousands of years ago the area comprised of mostly rainforest species of plants, as the climate was dried these rainforest species were slowly replaced by the Eucalyptus genus. At present time the dominant genus of plants which make up the canopy layer is Eucalyptus. Predominantly within this genus are the species E. creba, E. drepanophylla, E. intermedia, E. maculata, E. Tereticornis and E. umbra. The upper shrub layer is mostly comprised of thick leafed medium to large shrubs which include Acacia maidenii, A. melanoxylon, A. leiocalyx, A. fimbriata, A. penninervis, Jacksonia scorparia and Trochcarpa laurina. The lower shrub layer is mostly consists of small thick leafed shrubs which include Lomatia silaifolia, Breynia oblongifolia, Zieria smitii, Acrotriche aggregata, Hovea acutifolia, Leucopogon juniperinus, Pultenaea villosa and Psychotria spp. The ground cover layer is mostly made up of tough ferns, herbs, vines and grasses which include Imperata cylindrica var. major, Themeda australia, Oplismenus spp., Ottochoa spp., Aphanopetalum resinosum, Clematis glycinoides, Eustrephus latifolius and Hardenbergia violacea. WET SCLEROPHYLL FOREST During the dying of the climate some rainforest species of plants adapted to become more resilient to the drying conditions. These plants are found in the small amount of wet sclerophyll forest is located around south and east facing slopes and on the edges of waterways which have moister more fertile soils. The canopy layer is again mostly made up of species with the Eucalyptus genus, they include E. grandis, E. acmenoides, E. microcorys, E. propinqua and E. saligna. The upper shrub layer is mostly comprised of Backhousia myrtifolia, Cryptocarya glaucescens, Euroschinus falcata, Mallotus philippensis, Polyscias elegans and Synoum glandulosum. Ferns, small shrubs and herbaceous plants make the ground cover layer which mostly include species Adiantum spp., Doodia spp., Pteridium esculentum and Culcita dubia.5

ABORIGINAL CULTURAL HISTORYIndigenous people living within the study area were distinguished from other clans in surrounding areas by their unique language, turrbal and were part of the Undambi tribe. HOUSING Camps were usually built in open areas to view incoming people to the camp for an early warning system. They constructed small huts that were quick and easy to construct and destruct, as Aboriginal clans are always on the move. These huts were constructed of three sticks to form the main triangular frame, covering this frame and the ground was paperbark from the Melaleuca genus to provide shelter, they stood up to 1.8 metres in height and 1.4 metres in diametre. A fire was used at the entrance of the hut to help warm the hut, to be used for cooking, to provide light and to deter dangerous wildlife. Many tools and equipment were hung up outside the huts except for hunting weapons. HUNTING AND GATHERING Fish were caught by using nets and poisoning of the water by the use of leaves from the Tanggul plant, tortoises were mostly caught by hand. Spearing was common to kill kangaroos, wallabies and other large mammals, hunting was more predominant near waterbodies. Nocturnal animals were killed while sleeping during the daytime with either boomerangs or waddies, birds were killed with boomerangs thrown into flocks. Wood grubs were collected by using a hooked or thorny stick. Many roots, nuts and fruits were collected, some had to be processed to removed the poison from the seed or fruit. Some honey was found in native bee hives, however this food was quite rare and was eaten as a delicacy. Most of the food was eaten, leaving little to waste and only

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