laryngeal synergy

Download Laryngeal Synergy

Post on 02-Jun-2018

217 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/11/2019 Laryngeal Synergy

    1/6

  • 8/11/2019 Laryngeal Synergy

    2/6

    A

    4

    4

    0

    eond-

    cricothyroid

    40

    4:.4.tfr. *. lM*..),-a

    lateral

    I0V

    4 W O W - .- .. I L 4 , J

    .U u r

    vocalis

    00V

    audio

    .

    ii

    CLEARING

    LOTTAL PLOSIVE

    MAGINARY [h]

    THROAT

    0

    econd

    cricothyroid

    L.

    wpnw4gsrd 1.

    lateral

    GOAV

    L

    vocalis

    44V

    _

    '

    _

    il

    rI ri

    .

    Vowel {o]

    udio

    Subject C

    SPIRATE ATTACK

    OFT ATTACK

    FIG. I.

    VARIOUS ATTACKS, FEMALE

    Voics. TOP LINE SHOWS FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY (F0)

    WHICH THE EAR PERCEIVES AS PITCH. A, IS ON THE TREBLE STAFF. NEXT THREE LINES ARE

    EMG OF CIUCOTHYROID, LATERAL CRICO ARYTENOID, AND VOCALIS MUSCLES. BOTrOM LINE

    (AUDIO) IS THE MICROPHONE SIGNAL. IT SHOWS THE INTENSITY, WHICH IS PERCFIVED AS

    LOUDNESS. NOTE RESEMBLANCE OF GLOTTAL PLOSIVE TO CLEARING THROAT.

    uate the energy potentials, especially

    when the microphonic effect is greater

    than the static. The higher voices are

    more susceptible to this defect, and

    both Subject C and Subject R had a

    good deal of it. In the case of the latter

    almost the entire vocalis record was

    unreadable.

    In spite of these hazards, a great deal

    of data was accumulated, which will be

    reported in this and the next two arti-

    cles. In addition to the intrinsic muscles

    mentioned, five extrinsic muscles were

    also investigated: the digastric, thyro-

    hyoid, sternohyoid, palatopharyngeus,

    and levator veil palatini. The behavior

    of these muscles will be reported in the

    final article of the series.

    At first glance the EMG data seem

    to be the same for all the muscles, es-

    pecially the intrinsic muscles. Anyone

    hoping to find clearly that one muscle

    does something specific (for example,

    produces chest voice) and another mus-

    cle does something else (like produc-

    ing falsetto) will be disappointed. The

    physiology of the larynx is not that

    simple. When one muscle works, most

    of the others do also. As analysis of the

    data progresses, the logical concepts of

    physiology based upon the location of

    the muscles are confirmed, and in sub-

    tle ways muscular independence can be

    traced, particularly with reference to

    registration. But it would give a wrong

    impression to present these findings

    first.

    Laryngeal synergy in the attack

    EMG of the glottal plosive show all

    the muscles contracting somewhat ex-

    cessively before the attack, and drop-

    ping off to the effort needed for that

    particular tone as it is being sustained.

    The muscles in every case show activity

    before the actual sound is heard. Some-

    times the amount of time between the

    first sign of energy in a muscle and the

    beginning of the tone is longer than

    that of other muscles. This is often the

    case with the cricothyroids, which

    stretch the cords, and set up the appro-

    priate tension for the desired pitch

    before the tone is attacked. The differ-

    ence in time between the onset of en-

    ergy potentials in the EMG and the on-

    set of sound in the audio recording is

    expressed as: At. The symbol s is

    used in mathematics to stand for some

    significant difference, and t stands

    for time. The word latency is also

    used for this.

    When a subject is asked to use

    marked glottal plosives, his at may be

    rather long, because he is selfconscious

    about it. However, it was found, espe-

    cially when attacks were made in rapid

    succession, that the latency period was

    no greater for the glottal plosive than

    for other attacks. Four different attacks

    were performed repeatedly by each

    subject, over 250 in all.

    The glottal plosive (often called the

    glottal stroke ) and the aspirate at-

    tacks need not be defined again. The

    soft attack is one in which the tone

    does not reach full power until a few

    tenths of a second after its onset. All

    four subjects in this study prefer the

    imaginary [hi, which is like an aspi-

    rate, except that the amount of time

    and breath wasted is so little that no

    aspirate is heard. A pneumotacho-

    graphic study of the imaginary [h]

    appeared in The NATS Bulletin in

    1964 (Vennard and Isshiki). EMG of

    different attacks are shown in Figs. 1

    and 2.

    aryngeal synergy in the vowels

    The difference between the vowels

    is not seen as clearly in the intrinsic,

    musculature as it is in the extrinsic.

    That is to say, vowel pronunciation is

    more a function of the resonators than

    it is of the vibrator. Isshiki noted in

    1959 that if a subject intends to sine

    the vowels [i] [u]

    [a]

    all at the same

    loudness, he will actually produce an

    [al with much greater intensity than

    the others, because he will produce the

    same subglottal pressure for all three

    vowels, and the greater mouth opening

    for [a] will

    allow more sound to emerge.

    If, however, the subject will watch a

    sound level meter and bring all the

    vowels to the same intensity, it will re-

    quire greater pressure for the vowels [i]

    and

    [u.

    (The ear interprets intensity

    as loudness, though in this ease the

    difference between the vowels is prob-

    ably not perceived as being as great

    as the intensity differential actually is.)

    This was confirmed in the present

    study, in which Subject V sang 75

    sustained tones with changes of vowel

    (see Fig. 3). Subglottal pressure is

    changed by differences in muscular re-

    [ lease turn the page.]

    OCTOBER 1970

    71

  • 8/11/2019 Laryngeal Synergy

    3/6

    F

    o

    3

    ----.-.--.---.---.--

    0 3

    cricothyroid

    ________

    0second

    lateral

    15 1V

    -,_._ 4o

    1 - ]

    vocalis

    4 001 j V

    -_

    audio

    - -

    tz._.__

    COUGH

    LOTTAL PLOSIVE

    IMAGINARY-h]

    3

    second

    I 5O pV

    ii

    l 5 O jV

    - - ------

    OIiV

    F

    cricothyroid

    lateral

    vo cat is

    sistance to the breath flow. When effort

    was the same for all three vowels, [a]

    was much more ample. When the sub-

    ject kept all the vowels at the same

    level, the EMG of all three muscles

    were greater for [i] and

    [u].

    With these

    trained singers the larynx did not ap-

    pear to behave differently for different

    vowels unless the singer took pains to

    keep them all at the same volume.

    However, with abnormal production

    some differences between vowels did

    o c c u r .

    Laryngeal s

    nergy

    in changes

    of

    pitch and intensity

    Hundreds of scales on different

    vowels and with varieties of registra-

    tion and of production technics were

    performed. They

    will

    be reported in

    detail in future articles. Subject V sang

    octave leaps, ascending and descend-

    ing, with and without portarnento. Each

    vocalise was done six times. It is well

    known that the cricothyroids stretch

    the vocal cords for higher pitches, and

    so the change in cricothyroid activity

    was no surprise. However, the lateral

    and vocalis made the same change.

    (See Fig. 4.)

    The upper line of the graph shows

    and it shows changes in volume. It is

    similarly correlated with energy in the

    three muscles.

    Lary

    ngeal synergy in the vibrato

    It is apparent in all the EMG that

    the vibrato, as heard in the pitch and

    intensity of the tone, is following a vi-

    brato in the muscles themselves at an

    interval of about 0.05 second. The only

    muscle which does not show a vibrato

    is the interarytenoid (see Fig.

    5 .

    This

    muscle adducts the vocal folds, and

    holds them together during phonation.

    Other muscles fluctuate, and some-

    times even become inactive during pho-

    nation, but if this happened in the in-

    terarytenoid the glottis would open and

    phonation would cease. The interary-

    tenoid increases activity with the other

    muscles for greater phonatory efforts

    (either in loudness or in altitude of

    pitch) but it never falls below the

    minimum needed to keep the vocal

    cords together. Vibrato was found at

    least part of the time in all the other

    muscles studied, including the extrin-

    s ic .

    Each subject was asked to sing sus-

    tained tones with normal vibrato, slow

    marcato, rapid marcato, and chuckling.

    Three more or less distinct rates were

    discovered, as shown in Table I. In-

    cidentally, none of the subjects had a

    vibrato rate of

    6-7.75 per second, such

    as Seashore found in the singers of

    Caruso s day.

    The normal rate of the vibrato in-

    fluences the tempo at which voluntary

    marcato can be performed. Examples

    of staccato, slow marcato, fast mar-

    cato, and chuckling are shown in Fig.

    6. The slow marcato has three vibrati

    pitch, or fundamental frequency (ab-

    breviated 17

    ). When the descending

    skip was made without portamento all

    three muscles showed a sudden de-

    crease in exertion, and in 0.1 second

    the pitch had dropped an octave. When

    there was a portamento the muscles

    diminished their effort more gradually,

    especially the vocalis, and it took more

    like 0.4 second for the pitch to drop

    all the way. The lower line of the graph

    is the record made by the microphone,

    a u d io

    Vowel [o] ASPIRATE ATTACK

    OFT ATTACK

    ubject V

    FIG. 2:

    V A RIOU S

    ATTACKS

    MALE

    Voicn.

    NOTE RESEMBLANCE OF (;IOTrAL PLOSIVF. TO

    COUGHI NG.

    C

    F .

    _--

    C 4

    _-_------.-----

    3

    -

    sec_ _

    cricothyroid

    I50pV

    I

    lateral

    I 5 p V

    -

    -* 4

    e

    vocalis

    % NSSSNdH

    a u di o

    - -

    - -

    Vowel [a]

    O

    PORTAMENTO

    ORTAMENTO

    Subject

    FIG. 3:

    CHANGES OF PITCH

    W I T H A N D W I T H O U T P O R T A M E N T O . T H E R E R E A L LY I S A PO R T A -

    ME NTO IN BOTH CASE S, BUT ONE IS SO BRIE F AN D AT SUCH A L OW VOL UME AS SE E N IN TH E AU-

    DI O GRAPH) T H AT I T IS NOT PERC EI VED.

    1 8

    HE NATS BULLETIN

  • 8/11/2019 Laryngeal Synergy

    4/6

    F. C4

    second

    cricothyroid

    5 V

    lateral

    W

    *Wt1N **j

    vocalis

    audio

    u a

    iJ

    owels

    J J L

    [i]

    I

    U I

    ubject V

    FIG. 4: Caias O F

    V O W E L ,

    w n u

    A N D wrrsiou r

    C O N T R O L O F V O L U M E . S EE D I SC U S S IO N D S

    T E X T. T H E A T T E M PT T O H O L D D O W N T H E V O L U M E O F

    [a]

    IN THE R]Glff HAND GRAPH C AUSES

    THE

    VIBRATO TO DISAPPEAR (SEE PITCH GRAPH AT

    ro p , F0).

    F

    o e c o n

    lateral

    li y

    ]

    interarytenoid

    _________

    audio

    Vowel

    a]

    STRAIGHT

    IBRATO

    ubject V

    FIG 5:

    PR ESEN C E A N D A B SEN C E or

    VIB R A TO. VIB R A TO C A N B E SEEN IN LA TER A L C R 1 -

    COARYTENOID MUSCLE, AS IN ALL OTHER MUSCLES, EXCEPT INTERARYTENOID.

    Normal Vibrato Fast

    arcato Chuckle

    Subject R

    5.25/second

    6-7/second 10-11/second

    Subject C 5.75/second 6.25-7.5/second

    7.5-9/second

    Subject M 5/second

    5 6/second

    10-10.5/second

    Subject V

    5/second

    6.5-7/second

    7.5-8.5/second

    T A B L E 1 :

    R A T E S O F P U L S A T IO N I N V O C A L T O N E .

    for each accent, at the normal rate of

    the vibrato, which in this case is 5/sec.

    When the marcato is done entirely by

    breath impulses the pitch is more

    steady. When the laryngeal muscles

    contribute to the marcato, there is a

    drop in pitch before each accent. This

    is not readily perceptible to the ear,

    because it is very brief and there is a

    drop in loudness at the same time. In

    the rapid marcato, the vibrato is made

    to conform to a faster frequency. 7/sec

    here. The chuckle is still more rapid.

    8/sec.

    The same rates apply to melisma, or

    florid ornamentation. Ordinary singing

    is likely to assume tempi in which the

    normal vibrato rate will come out even,

    but demands for accelerandi will speed

    this up. All four subjects performed

    rapid scales and arpeggios in various

    ways: as legato as possible, marcato

    using abdominally produced breath im-

    pulses, and with chuckling technic. It

    was assumed that attempting to per-

    form the runs in the manner of chuck-

    ling could speed them up. This suc-

    ceeded in only a few cases, and is

    probably used best only for brief orna-

    ments, like turns and mordents. Most

    of the florid work, including runs from

    Handel's Messiah, were performed at

    the fast vibrato rate. Subject C pro-

    duced a good trill at

    6.5/sec

    her fast

    marcato frequency.

    Vibrato did not appear continuously

    in all the muscles, but when it did the

    intrinsic all synchronized in this re-

    spect. The same was true also of the

    extrinsic muscles. At first it appeared

    that the idea of diadochokinesis, of an-

    tagonistic muscles working alternately

    to produce trembling, was not sup-

    ported by this study. However, in one

    instance, shown in Fig. 7, the electrodes

    originally placed in the cncothyroid

    slipped out and registered the energy

    potentials of the sternohyoid instead.

    Diadochokinesis was discovered be-

    tween this muscle, which is extrinsic,

    and the lateral cricoarytenoid, which is

    intrinsic. The vocalis was not very ac-

    tive at this moment, but to the extent

    that it showed vibrato it synchronized

    with the lateral.

    A check of vibrati registered in all

    the muscles studied showed that while

    the energy peaks in the vibrato of the

    intrinsic muscles

    pre eded

    the high

    phases of the pitch vibrato, the energy

    peaks in the vibrato of the extrinsic

    muscles

    oin ided

    with the high phases

    of the pitch vibrato. This behavior was

    not completely consistent, but at least

    eighty percent of the vibrato peaks con-

    formed to this pattern. In other words,

    the vibrato of the tone followed the

    vibrato of the intrinsic muscles, and

    between each two peaks in the vibrato

    pattern of the intrinsic muscles there

    was a reaction in the form of a vibrato

    peak in the extrinsic muscles.

    ummary

    Four professional singers, two so-

    pranos, a tenor, and a bass, participated

    in an electromyographic investigation

    of the cricothyroid, lateral cricoary-

    tenoid, and vocalis muscles. In one

    subject the interarytenoid was in-

    cluded. Five extrinsic muscles were

    also studied.

    Scales were performed throughout a

    range from C

    to E

    . There were

    (roughly) 6 four-octave scales, 75

    three-octave scales, 75 two-octave

    scales, 150 scales of an octave and a

    fourth,

    375

    one-octave scales in various

    registers, vowels, and singing technics.

    Sustained tones were sung for a va-

    riety of purposes. There were over

    250 in various registers, 200 swelltones

    (messa di voce), 400 using assorted

    technics and vowels,

    250

    brief tones

    using different attacks.

    In addition 125 florid or melismatic

    vocalises were performed. Several voice

    [Please turn the page ]

    OCTOBER

    197

    9

  • 8/11/2019 Laryngeal Synergy

    5/6

    G 3

    F

    r,

    lateral

    vocalis

    audio

    -- -- --- -

    STACCATO

    D

    1- .

    3

    second

    lateral

    vocalis

    audio

    RAPID MARCATO

    F 1

    Isecond

    lateral

    irtte rarytenoid

    audio

    -.

    A

    ( . 1 3

    MARCATO

    i e cond

    s o a v

    15IsV

    CHUCKLING

    03

    o

    second

    5 O O V

    m im

    l .r.w9.

    r E

    5 O p V

    -

    t.. . ;

    FIG 6: Viou

    RATES OF PU

    SATION. NOT

    THAT

    TIM

    SCALE IS DO

    BLED TO FAC

    I T A TE C O U N T IN

    OF FREQUE

    CIES. CHUC

    LING

    MAY B

    CALLED AN E

    CEPTION TO TH

    RULE THAT TH

    INTERARYTENO

    NEVER SHOW

    VIBRATO.

    Acn

    ALLY THE R

    LAXING OF TH

    MUSCLE SEVE

    AL TIMES PE

    SECOND IS WHA

    GIVES THE FEEL

    ING OF ASP

    RATES, HA-u

    HA, ALTHOUG

    BOTH THE PITC

    GRAPH (F,) AN

    THE AUDIO GRAP

    SHOW THA

    COMPLETE SEP

    ARATION (AS I

    STACCATO DOE

    NO T TAKE PLAC

    second

    s a a v

    ... .-

    I50,V

    A,

    Vowel [a].

    APID MARCATO

    HUCKLING

    A4..

    '0

    sternohyoid

    av

    lateral

    vocal is1

    audio

    Vowel [a]

    ubject C

    -7G

    7:

    DI.thoclIoKlNIsls BLTWI-LN INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC

    Muscuis

    NOTE THAT BOTH

    TIME- AND AM PI ITUDE-SCALES ARE DOUBLE THOSE OF THE FIRST FIVE FIGURES. THIS IS TO

    MAKE THE VIBRATI EASIER TO SEE.

    Subject C

    WAS ALTERNATELYINHIBITING AND RELEASING

    HER VIBRATO. PLACING A VERTICAL. STRAIGHT EDGE IN THE GRAPHS WILL SHOW THAT PEAKS

    IN THE STERNOHYOID GRAPH COINCIDE WITH PEAKS IN THE PITCH GRAPH (F0). THEY

    COME JUST AFTER THE PEAKS IN THE LATERAL CRICOARYTENOID GRAPH. PEAKS IN THE

    VIBRATO OF INTRINSIC MUSCLES ALWAYS PRECEDE PEARS IN THE PITCH-VIBRATO. THERE

    IS

    RI FMISH IN THE VOCALIS GRAPH AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TONE.

    Ti us

    IS AN ARTIFACT

    OF THE 1-QUIP MENT AND DOES NOT REPRESENT THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MUSCLE,

    Subject V

    building exercises were sung, over 225

    examples. Samples of normal whisper

    ing, stage whispering, and vocal fry

    totaled over 125.

    Since not more than three muscle

    could be studied simultaneously, the

    above totals must be assigned over one

    half to intrinsic and the balance to

    extrinsic investigations.

    The most readily observable fac

    was synergy in which all the muscle

    showed more or less parallel EMG. The

    vibrato appeared at least part of the

    time in all

    muscles, the intrinsic mus

    cles alternating with the extrinsic in d

    adochokinesis. The interarytenoid wa

    an exception. It showed no vibrato, and

    there was a minimum level of intensity

    below which it could not fall if phona

    tion were to continue.

    O

    REFERENCES

    BASMAJIAN,

    I. V., and G. STRcK :

    A new

    bipolar electrode for electromyography

    Journal of Applied Physiology, 17, 849

    1962 .

    FAABORG-ANDERSON, KNUD:

    Electromy-

    ographic investigation of intrinsic laryngea

    muscles in humans. Copenhagen, Acta

    2 0

    HE NATS BULLETIN

  • 8/11/2019 Laryngeal Synergy

    6/6

    Physiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 140, Sup.

    140, 1957.

    HIR.uo

    M I N O R U , J O H N O H A L A a nd TI M

    SMITH:

    Current techniques in obtaining

    EMG data. Working Papers in Phonetics,

    7 , U CL A ,

    Nov. 1967.

    HIRAN0 MIN0RU and 101114

    OHAL A: Use of

    hooked-wire electrodes for electromyog-

    raphy of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles.

    Journal of Speech and H ear ing R esearch

    in press).

    HIP.ANo,

    M. W.

    VENNARD and I. OHALA;

    R egulat ion of R egis ter , P itch and Inten-

    s i ty of Voice ; an e lect romyographic in-

    vestigation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles.

    Folia Phoniatrica, Vol. 22,

    No. 1,

    1970

    HIR0T0 IKucHIRo MINoRu HIRANO Y0RI-

    KAZU

    TOYO GUM I an d

    T A X E M O T O S H I N :

    Electromyographic investigation of the in-

    trinsic laryngeal muscles related to speech

    sounds. Annals of O tology, Rhinology and

    Laryngology, 76, No. 4, 861-872, 1967.

    HIR 0T0 , e t a l . a bove) : A new method o f

    placement of a needle electrode in the in-

    trinsic laryngeal m uscles for electromyog-

    raphy. O to-rhino-laryngology Clinic, Kyo -

    to, 55, 499-504, 1 9 6 2

    lssl-UKI NoBuinKo:

    M emoirs of research

    center of voice science. Kyoto, Oto-rhino-

    laryngology Clinic, 52,

    1 9 5 9

    K A T S U K I ,

    YA suji: The function of the pho-

    natory muscles. Japanese Journal of Phys-

    iology, 1, 29-36, 1950.

    VENNARD , WILLIAM, and

    NoBumKo

    I 5 S H I X I :

    Coup de glot te , a misund erstood expres-

    sion. THE NA TS BU LLETIN , Feb. 1964.

    Th is research, the first in a series of dc c-

    tromyographic studies, was partially support-

    ed by the National Institutes of Health,

    United Sta tes Department of H eal th , Educa-

    t ion, and W elfare . The elec tromyography

    was done a t the Univers i ty of Cali fornia at

    Lo s An geles , in the phonetics Laboratory,

    presided over by PETER LAD EvOGED. Support-

    ing aerodyna mic studies were carried out at

    the Ins t itu te of Laryngology and Voice D is -

    orders, HANS VON LEDEN, director, affiliated

    with the University of Southern California.

    N41NOR11 JIIRANI), M.D.,

    is now in the De-

    partment of Otolaryngology, School of Medi-

    cine, University of Kurume, Kyushu, Japan.

    /l was in the United States on a Fuibright

    hange,

    performing

    research at tire Insti-

    uie of Laryngology and Voice Disorders (of-

    i iated with USC) and at the Phonetics De-

    partment, UCLA .

    JOHN

    011A, PH.D.,

    is now in the De-

    partment of Linguistics at the University of

    California at Berkeley. He was a graduate

    student at UCLA and assisted in the re-

    ,arch of Dr. Hirano,

    after

    which he spent

    a year at the Research Institute of Logo-

    t eJics and Phoniatrics. School of Medicine,

    f ,zinersity of Tokyo.

    WILLIAM VENNAR D, M. M., is a past presi-

    dent of NA TS. He is chairman of the Voice

    Department of the University of Southern

    California and has taught summer sessions

    at the Meadow Brook School and the BIos-

    rnFestival S chool.

    SEE YOU IN D LL S

    NATS

    PLACEMENT

    SERVICE

    ?4 et4

    1 6 4 e e

    _ OR SOME TIME NATS members

    J

    have requested a placement service

    where applicants and institutional rep-

    resentatives could be brought together

    at the national convention for inter-

    views and auditions. We are happy to

    announce that such a service will be

    available for the first time at the Dallas

    Convention this December.

    All NATS members interested in lo-

    cating a new position and all institu-

    tions with openings are urged to regis-

    ter with the NATS Placement Service.

    All applicant

    vitae and position de-

    scriptions must be filed prior to De-

    cember 20 1970 with

    WESLEY

    ABBOTT, NA TS

    Placement Service Co-

    ordinator,

    LUTHER COLLEGE DE-

    CORAH, IOWA 52101.

    Applicant vitae

    must also be accompanied by a $10.00

    placement service fee.

    Institutions with an opening should

    submit a copy of the position descrip-

    tion normally prepared and distributed

    by the institution. It will also be help-

    ful

    to know whether or not the institu-

    tion will be represented at the Dallas

    Convention by someone prepared to

    interview applicants.

    NATS members wishing to take ad-

    vantage of the placement service

    should submit a vita, typed on

    8 x

    11" paper, one side only. Non-members

    must also submit a

    Membership Appli-

    cation Form

    accompanied by a separate

    check covering membership dues.

    This vita must contain the

    following

    information in this order

    [ lease write

    legibly ]:

    1.

    Na me, age, marital status.

    2.

    Address (current and permanent)

    including ZIP, phone.

    3.

    When a vailable.

    4.

    Voice, list three representative

    Se -

    lections from repertoire.

    5.

    Subjects qualif ied to teach, in order

    of preference.

    6.

    Educa tion: List institutions attended,

    degrees earned, teachers studied

    with. Include dates.

    7.

    Experience: List employers or in-

    stitutions, responsibilities or subjects

    taught . Include d ates .

    8.

    Significant honors and awards.

    9.

    List nam es, addresses and relation-

    ship

    to you of three or more persons

    who could provide letters of refer-

    ence and whether or not these letters

    are already in some accessable place-

    ment tile, like a university placement

    service.

    Do not send ref

    erences

    or

    have

    re

    f

    erences

    cent to

    THE

    NATS

    P L A C E M E N T S E R V IC E

    10.

    O ther information pertinent to your

    qualifications or type of position

    desired.

    11.

    Are you a NA TS M ember? I f no t,

    is membership application and check

    covering dues enclosed.

    12.

    Are you planning to attend the

    Dallas Convention?

    At the Dallas Convention, applicants

    and institutional representatives will

    have access to the information con-

    tained in the files. It must be under-

    stood that all information pertainiilg to

    vacancies supplied to applicants will

    be considered confidential. An audition

    room with piano will be available.

    The success of this long-needed ven-

    ture depends upon many things, but

    it is especially dependent upon insti-

    tutions listing their vacancies with the

    service and then sending a representa-

    tive to the convention.

    Be sure your

    school takes advantage

    o

    this ser-

    vice.

    13

    LUNKLEY

    [Continued front

    page iS ]

    wonderful shops and stores because the

    Statler Hilton is downtown only a block

    or two from famed Neiman-Marcus

    and other special places.

    There will be more program delights

    announced in coming weeks.

    V E R A

    REDGROVE NEILSON,

    program chair-

    man,

    and her committee from the six

    states of the region have worked hard

    to find and bring exciting and stimulat-

    ing persons for your edification and en-

    joyment. The chairmen

    of

    the conven-

    tion,

    BRUCE

    G

    LUNKLEY, EDWARD

    BAIRD,

    and

    JAMES McKINNEY,

    hope

    that you will journey to Dallas and help

    make this a big, happy, exciting, and

    enriching convention. There is a regis-

    tration blank and hotel reservation

    form for your use on cover four of this

    publication. You are urged to pre-reg-

    ister for both the convention and your

    hotel accomodations

    so

    that your arri-

    val in Dallas can be pleasant and quick-

    ly handled. You-all come

    [Bruce G.

    Lunklevj

    O

    O C T O B E R / 1 9 70

    1