learning disabilities

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Learning Disabilities. TLSE 240. What do all these people have in common?. Cher Jay Leno Whoopi Goldberg Charles Schwab Greg Louganis Bruce Jenner Nelson Rockefeller. They all have or had a LEARNING DISABILITY…. IDEA Definition. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Learning Disabilities

    TLSE 240

  • What do all these people have in common?CherJay LenoWhoopi GoldbergCharles SchwabGreg LouganisBruce JennerNelson Rockefeller

  • They all have or had a


  • IDEA Definition a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language (Psychological processes are memory, perception, attention, etc.)

  • continuedthat may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math calculations

  • Includes conditions such as:Perceptual disabilitiesBrain injuryMinimal brain dysfunctionDyslexiaDevelopmental aphasia

  • Does not includeProblems primarily resulting fromSensory or motor disabilitiesMental retardationEmotional disturbanceEnvironmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage

  • Learning Disabilities (LD)Most common disability among students who receive special education (50.8% of all disabilities)Several kinds of specific learning disabilities exist (i.e., reading, math, writing, etc.)Difficulty in learning, especially in speaking, listening, writing, reading, and mathematics

  • LD continuedPresumed cause is central nervous system dysfunctionUnexpected under achievement is a common characteristicAverage or above average IQDiscrepancy between potential to learn and level of achievement

  • DiscrepancyCompare IQ level on IQ test with achievement test scoresNot a perfect way to assessIssues with discrepancy approach/formula

  • Some CharacteristicsDifficulty in understanding and following directionsShort attention spanDifficulty with handwriting and fine motor skillsVisual or auditory memoryMemorizing words or basic math factsDifficulty allocating time and organizing work

  • Characteristics continuedSegmenting words into sounds and blending soundsMay confuse letters and words (b, d) (was, saw)Poor phonics/decoding/phonological awarenessRapid namingInefficient learning strategies

  • TermsDyslexia severe disability in learning to read, especially as related to decoding and spellingDysgraphia severe disability in learning to write, including handwriting

  • continuedDyscalculia severe disability in learning math concepts and computations

  • LD HistoryCoined by Sam Kirk in 1963 in ChicagoPrevious termsFast growing categoryControversyInvisible disability

  • History continuedKirkOrtonProcess/product debate

  • Assumed CausesNeurological basedPart of brain responsible for sounds and symbolsMay be genetic linkLead paint injectionFAS

  • Teaching IdeasDirect instructionMemory/learning strategiesSelf-managementMulti-sensory learningOrganized learning

  • Teaching Ideas continuedTask analysisAccommodationsProjectsTechnologiesOther

  • Other Facts - LDLearning disabilities often run in familiesLearning disabilities is a life long disabilityAbout 35% of students with LD drop out of school

  • Other Facts continuedLearning disabilities can be a serious obstacle to gainful employment50% of young criminals were determined to have learning disabilities85% of Americans often confuse learning disabilities with mental retardationEarly and appropriate interventions are essential


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