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DESCRIPTIONLearning Disabilities. Speech/Language Disorders: by Holly Schools, Malikah Lawson, Charles Crawford and Berniece Taylor. Speech/Language Disorder: What is it?. Difficulties pronouncing sounds, or articulation disorders, and stuttering are examples of speech disorders. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Learning Disabilities Speech/Language Disorders: byHolly Schools, Malikah Lawson, Charles Crawford and Berniece Taylor
Speech/Language Disorder: What is it?Difficulties pronouncing sounds, or articulation disorders, and stuttering are examples of speech disorders.Speech disorders may be problems with the way sounds are formed, called articulation or phonological disorders, or they may be difficulties with the pitch, volume or quality of the voice.
Characteristics of Speech/Language DisordersImproper use of words and their meanings.Inappropriate grammatical patternsInability to express ideas.Inappropriate grammatical patterns.Reduced vocabulary. Inability to follow directions.
BehaviorsSome children exhibit behaviors that fall outside of the normal, or expected, range of development. These behaviors emerge in a way or at a pace that is different from their peers.
Behaviors contAtypical behaviors should be noted and carefully recorded. They may be isolated events that have little or no impact on later development. They might, however, be early warning signs of later and more significant problems
Who are these students?Families and teachers should be concerned if a childs language is noticeably not at the same level as the language of peers of the same age. In the Fall of 2003, students aged 3 to 21 that were being served under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B numbered 1,460,583, which translates to 5% of the school-aged population.
Who are these students continuedStudies show that between 28% and 60% of students with language and/or communication disabilities have a sibling or parent that also are affected by language and/or communication disability (Compiled by Castrogiovanni, 2008). Most students with language difficulties are identified before they begin school, however some students may not be identified until they begin school (Compiled by Castrogiovanni, 2008).
Students continuedAll teachers (both general education and special education teachers) should be aware of language and communication disabilities as this is a problem that we will see and that will, at some point in time, need to be addressed in our classrooms.
What should parents do?
Early detection of speech/language disorder is important to getting treatment started early. Language is known before the child speaks as a result of the environment they are in. Parents should talk to their child in regular language as well as read to their child regularly.
What should parents do? contOther activities such as reading books aloud, singing songs, and encouraging but not forcing children to interact, is another way parents can promote speech and language development.
What should teachers do?Keep lectures clear, simple, pronounced, and in proper language syntax (no slang) to keep the attention of the student. Proper eye contact with the student while listening and speaking also keeps the student engaged and also allows the student to participate regularly in the classroom.
Recommendations for teachingDudley-Marling and Searle (1998) identified four suggestions for working with students who have language disabilities: (1) the physical setting must promote talk; (2) the teacher must provide opportunities for children to interact as they learn; (3) the teacher needs to provide opportunities for children to use language for a variety of purposes for a variety of audiences; (4) the teacher needs to respond in ways that encourage the student to continue the conversation.
Recommendations for teaching contdWorking in small groups, students can learn to use context clues to understand difficult words and learn to ask questions about how the word may be used (Kuder, 2008). The ability to communicate and converse with peers helps open up the communication beyond just one word answers.
Recommendations for identificationLanguage disabilities are very difficult to assess and as educators we must make sure that we are aware of these difficulties when trying to identify. For example with screening, we must keep in mind that the results tend to over-identify or under-identify (Kuder, 2008).
Recommendations for identification contdThe best way to identify language issues is to observe in a classroom setting. When we watch students converse with their peers, this will give us the most realistic view of their communication abilities. It is important to keep in mind that adolescents speak differently with their peers, meaning they are more relaxed, more talkative and more concerned that their conversation partners understand what they are staying (Kuder, 2008).
SummaryAlmost 1.5 million students are identified as having language and communication disabilities. Educators and family members must be aware of the warning signs of language and communication disabilities. For the success of children with language and communication disabilities, early identification and effective intervention is imperative.
ReferencesAmerican Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2005). Helping Children with Communication Disorders in Schools. Reading Rockets. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/5128/Cazden, C. B. (1986). Classroom discourse. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 432-464). New York: MacmillanCompiled by Castrogiovanni, A. (2008). Incidence and Prevalence of Communication Disorders and Hearing Loss in Children 2008 Edition. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/research/reports/children.htmDisorders in Children and Adolescents. Retrieved from http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child- psychology/children_with_communication_disorders.shtmlEarly Identification: Normal and Atypical Development Retrieved from: http://www.ldonline.org/article/6047 Dudley-Marling, C., & Searle, D. (1988). Enriching language learning environments for students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 140-143. Kuder, S. J. (2008). Teaching Students with Language and Communication Disabilities (272-331). Boston: Pearson Education. NICHY Disability Fact Sheet (2011). Speech and Language Impairments. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://nichcy.org/disability/specific/speechlanguage