lec no. 4 hardware and software basic

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  • 1. Hardware and Software Basics By ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, BSCS, MBA Lecture No. 4 Lyceum of the Philippines University CAVITE

2. Module Objectives

  • Describe the appropriate use of operating systems, software applications, and networking components.
  • Compare and contrast the use of various input, processing, output, and primary/secondary storage devices.
  • Explain the differences between analog and digital technology systems and give examples of each type of system.
  • Delineate and make necessary adjustments regarding compatibility issues and cross-platform connectivity.

3. Types of Devices

  • Digital versus Analog
  • A digital device uses discrete data.
    • Discrete data is distinct or separate.
    • Ex: Numbers or digits.
  • Most computers today are digital. Their circuits have only two possible states, such as Off and On or 0 and 1.

4. Types of Devices

  • Digital versus Analog
  • An analog device operates oncontinuously varying data.
  • Continuously varying data has an infinite number of possible states.

5. Types of Devices

  • Digital versus Analog
  • A digital thermometer will give a specific numerical reading when used to measure someones body temperature.
  • An old fashioned mercury thermometers reading of someones body temperature could be interpreted differently by different users.

6. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit - also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

7. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit- also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

8. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit- also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

9. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit- also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

10. CPU Types

  • CPU or microprocessoris often described as the brain of a computer.
  • CPU is an integrated circuit or chip which processes instructions and data.
  • CPU types.
    • Intel Pentium II, III, IV
    • Intel Celeron
    • AMD Athlon

11. CPU types

  • CPU speed is measured by the number of completedinstruction cyclesper second
    • Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).
  • Always check new softwares requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing

12. Microcomputer Platforms

  • All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) orcomputer platforms .
  • PC architecture is based on the first IBM microcomputers. Generally, PCs use Microsoft Windows as their operating system.
  • Apple computers or Macs are based on proprietary architecture manufactured exclusively by Apple Computer, Inc.

13. Microcomputer Platforms

  • Compatibility refers to computers that operate in essentially the same way.
  • Compatibility across platforms is limited! You must know which platform your computer runs on before purchasing software.
  • All software is designed for a specific platform.
    • Windows, Mac or Unix versions

14. Memory (RAM)

  • RAMorR andomA ccessM emory
  • Waiting room for computers CPU.
  • Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data.
  • Ram is measured by:
    • Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)
    • Speed (in Nanoseconds)

15. Memory (RAM)

  • Amount of RAM installed will determine.
    • Which software applications will run(efficiently)?
    • How many software applications can be opensimultaneously (multitasking ability)?
  • RAM upgradesare cost-effective and easy to install.
    • Check your computer manual for RAM type ( DIMM, SDRAM ) and speed ( 100, 90ns ).

16. Memory (RAM)

  • All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging.
  • Many applications list both aminimum and arecommendedamount of RAM necessary to run the software.
  • Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.

17. Storage Technology

  • Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.
  • Todays microcomputers or PCs include several types ofstorage devices .
  • Capacityandspeed are important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.

18. Storage Technology

  • Magnetic storage devicesstore data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.
  • Optical storage devicesstore data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.

19. Storage Devices

  • Hard Disk Drives
  • Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).
  • Typically permanently installed.
  • Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.
  • Magnetic storage device.

20. Storage Devices

  • Floppy Disk Drives
  • Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
    • Storage device with the smallest capacity
    • Most portable storage media
  • Magnetic storage device.

21. Storage Devices

  • CD-ROM Drives
  • Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990s).
  • Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes(MB or millions of bytes).
  • Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.

22. Storage Devices

  • CD-ROM Drives
  • Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.
  • Data is read from CD by a laser.
  • Optical storage device.

23. Storage Devices

  • Other Types of Drives
  • Zip Drives Several different capacities are available.
  • Tape Drives Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.
  • DVD drives Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.

24. Input Devices

  • Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources:
    • A person
    • A storage device on computer
    • Another computer
    • A peripheral device
    • Another piece of equipment, such as a musical instrument or thermometer

25. Input Devices

  • Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands.
  • Primary input device:
    • Keyboard- Most common input device; used to type in commands and data.
    • Mouseortrackballenhances users ability to input commands, manipulate text, images.
    • Joystickuseful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device.

26. Input Devices

  • Scannersare peripheral input devices which allow users to import:
    • Text
    • Graphics
    • Images
  • Specialized software aids in translating information into a format the computer can understand and manipulate.

27. Input Devices

  • Digital Camerasare peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format.
    • Some require specializedsoftware to import imagesinto the computer.
    • Some record digital images directly to a disk that can be read by the computer.

28. Output Devices

  • Monitorsare the most commonly used output device.
  • Most monitors use abitmapdisplay.
    • Allows user to resize the display.
    • Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny squ