Lec no. 4 hardware and software basic

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  • 1. Hardware and Software Basics By ROY ESPINELI FEROLINO, BSCS, MBA Lecture No. 4 Lyceum of the Philippines University CAVITE

2. Module Objectives

  • Describe the appropriate use of operating systems, software applications, and networking components.
  • Compare and contrast the use of various input, processing, output, and primary/secondary storage devices.
  • Explain the differences between analog and digital technology systems and give examples of each type of system.
  • Delineate and make necessary adjustments regarding compatibility issues and cross-platform connectivity.

3. Types of Devices

  • Digital versus Analog
  • A digital device uses discrete data.
    • Discrete data is distinct or separate.
    • Ex: Numbers or digits.
  • Most computers today are digital. Their circuits have only two possible states, such as Off and On or 0 and 1.

4. Types of Devices

  • Digital versus Analog
  • An analog device operates oncontinuously varying data.
  • Continuously varying data has an infinite number of possible states.

5. Types of Devices

  • Digital versus Analog
  • A digital thermometer will give a specific numerical reading when used to measure someones body temperature.
  • An old fashioned mercury thermometers reading of someones body temperature could be interpreted differently by different users.

6. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit - also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

7. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit- also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

8. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit- also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

9. Computer Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit- also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor
  • Memory (RAM)
  • Storage Devices
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices

10. CPU Types

  • CPU or microprocessoris often described as the brain of a computer.
  • CPU is an integrated circuit or chip which processes instructions and data.
  • CPU types.
    • Intel Pentium II, III, IV
    • Intel Celeron
    • AMD Athlon

11. CPU types

  • CPU speed is measured by the number of completedinstruction cyclesper second
    • Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).
  • Always check new softwares requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing

12. Microcomputer Platforms

  • All microcomputers are based on a small number of designs (interior architecture) orcomputer platforms .
  • PC architecture is based on the first IBM microcomputers. Generally, PCs use Microsoft Windows as their operating system.
  • Apple computers or Macs are based on proprietary architecture manufactured exclusively by Apple Computer, Inc.

13. Microcomputer Platforms

  • Compatibility refers to computers that operate in essentially the same way.
  • Compatibility across platforms is limited! You must know which platform your computer runs on before purchasing software.
  • All software is designed for a specific platform.
    • Windows, Mac or Unix versions

14. Memory (RAM)

  • RAMorR andomA ccessM emory
  • Waiting room for computers CPU.
  • Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data.
  • Ram is measured by:
    • Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)
    • Speed (in Nanoseconds)

15. Memory (RAM)

  • Amount of RAM installed will determine.
    • Which software applications will run(efficiently)?
    • How many software applications can be opensimultaneously (multitasking ability)?
  • RAM upgradesare cost-effective and easy to install.
    • Check your computer manual for RAM type ( DIMM, SDRAM ) and speed ( 100, 90ns ).

16. Memory (RAM)

  • All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging.
  • Many applications list both aminimum and arecommendedamount of RAM necessary to run the software.
  • Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.

17. Storage Technology

  • Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.
  • Todays microcomputers or PCs include several types ofstorage devices .
  • Capacityandspeed are important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.

18. Storage Technology

  • Magnetic storage devicesstore data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.
  • Optical storage devicesstore data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.

19. Storage Devices

  • Hard Disk Drives
  • Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).
  • Typically permanently installed.
  • Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.
  • Magnetic storage device.

20. Storage Devices

  • Floppy Disk Drives
  • Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).
    • Storage device with the smallest capacity
    • Most portable storage media
  • Magnetic storage device.

21. Storage Devices

  • CD-ROM Drives
  • Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990s).
  • Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes(MB or millions of bytes).
  • Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.

22. Storage Devices

  • CD-ROM Drives
  • Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.
  • Data is read from CD by a laser.
  • Optical storage device.

23. Storage Devices

  • Other Types of Drives
  • Zip Drives Several different capacities are available.
  • Tape Drives Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.
  • DVD drives Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.

24. Input Devices

  • Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources:
    • A person
    • A storage device on computer
    • Another computer
    • A peripheral device
    • Another piece of equipment, such as a musical instrument or thermometer

25. Input Devices

  • Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands.
  • Primary input device:
    • Keyboard- Most common input device; used to type in commands and data.
    • Mouseortrackballenhances users ability to input commands, manipulate text, images.
    • Joystickuseful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device.

26. Input Devices

  • Scannersare peripheral input devices which allow users to import:
    • Text
    • Graphics
    • Images
  • Specialized software aids in translating information into a format the computer can understand and manipulate.

27. Input Devices

  • Digital Camerasare peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format.
    • Some require specializedsoftware to import imagesinto the computer.
    • Some record digital images directly to a disk that can be read by the computer.

28. Output Devices

  • Monitorsare the most commonly used output device.
  • Most monitors use abitmapdisplay.
    • Allows user to resize the display.
    • Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square dots calledpixels .
    • The more dots a screen can display, the higher theresolutionof the monitor.

29. Output Devices

  • Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port integrated on thevideo adapterorgraphics card .
  • Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to analog data for display on monitors.
    • Typically have additional memory chips on card, 4MB to 64MB.

30. Output Devices

  • Printers
  • Dot matrix
    • Seldom used in a classroom.
    • Still frequently used in business.
  • Bubbleorink jet
  • Laser

31. Output Devices

  • Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from a computer system on a larger screen for whole-class instruction.

32. Networks

  • A collection of computers and other devices that communicate to share data, hardware, and software.
  • Astand-alonecomputer is called aworkstationon a network.
  • A workstation provides access to:
    • Your computerslocal resources
    • Network resources

33. Networks Network nodes include workstations, printers,and servers. 34. Networks

  • Aserveris a computer connected to a network that distributes and stores resources for other network users.
  • With proper licensing, many network users can use the same applications and data files simultaneously and share other resources, such as storage space or a printer.

35. Networks

  • Local Area Network (LAN )a network located in a limited area.
    • LANs are found in most businesses.
    • Many campuses use LANs.
  • Anetwork interface card (NIC)a key hardware component.
    • Connects a workstation to the network.
    • A circuit board that sends data between the workstation and the network.

36. Networks

  • Wide Area Network (WAN)a network that covers a large geographical area. TENET is a classic example.
  • All types of networks requirespecial networkinghardwareand networkingsoftwareto allow different computers to communicate with each other.

37. Networks

  • TheInternet- largest of all networks.
  • Communication standards calledprotocolsallow for global exchange of information.
    • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • Internet Protocol (IP)
  • Intranets are LANs or WANs that use these communication standards orTCP/IP .
  • Special hardware ( modem ) and software ( browser ) are required.

38. Options and Tradeoffs

  • Speed versus Cost
  • How fast are you able to access and save data on the hard drive?
  • How fast will application software open?
  • How quickly will software respond to commands?
  • How quickly will your printer produce a document?

39. Options and Tradeoffs

  • Capacity versus Cost
  • How many applications can you store on a hard disk drive?
  • How much data can you store on a secondary storage device?
  • How many applications can be opened simultaneously?

40. Options and Tradeoffs

  • Quality versus Cost
  • Pentium versus Celeron
  • Laser printer versus Ink Jet printer
  • Limited functionality editions versus full versions of software
  • 15 inch monitor versus 21 inch monitor

41. Options and Tradeoffs

  • Speed versus Cost
  • Capacity versus Cost
  • Quality versus Cost
  • Cost-Cost-Cost

42. Software

  • Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish a task.
  • System softwarehelps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks.
    • Operating systems
    • Utilities

43. System Software

  • AnOperating System (OS) is the master controller within a computer.
    • EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS, UNIX, Linux
  • An operating system interacts with:
    • All hardware installed in or connected to a computer system.
    • All software installed or running from a storage device on a computer system.

44. System Software

  • Microsoft Windows
    • Most popular operating system.
    • Supports a vast array of application software and peripheral devices.
  • MacOS
    • For Macintosh computers.
    • Proprietary system.
    • Does not have same functionality and support for software and peripheral devices.

45. System Software

  • Network operating system (NOS)
    • Manages network resources.
    • Maintains security.
    • Tracks user accounts.
    • Handles communication between workstations and servers.
  • Popular network operating systems
    • Windows NT, Novell Netware, UNIX

46. System Software

  • Utilities
  • Utilities augment functionality of operating systems. Utilities includes device drivers and Troubleshooting capabilities.
  • Utilities provide file management capabilities such as copying, moving or renaming a file.
  • Norton Utilities includes an undelete function that can recover deleted files.
  • Symantec and McAfee Virus checkers add protection for all system and data files.

47. Application Software

  • Accomplishes specific tasks for users.
  • Enables a computer to become a multi-purpose machine.
  • Produce worksheets and reports.
  • Automate record keeping like attendance and grades.
  • Create flow charts and graphic organizers.
  • Communicate worldwide.

48. Application Software

  • Productivity Software
    • Spreadsheets
    • Databases
  • Presentation Software
  • Document Preparation
    • Word Processing
    • Desktop Publishing
  • Project Management Software

49. Application Software

  • Graphics Creation and Manipulation
  • Animation and 3D Graphics
  • Video Editing
  • Internet Connectivity
  • Website Creation and Management
  • Groupware
  • Financial Management
  • Educational Games and Tutorials

50. Programming Languages

  • Basic building blocks of any software.
  • Programming languages allow a programmer to write instructions that a computer can understand.
  • Programming languages have some resemblance to the English language.
    • BASIC
    • Pascal
    • Fortran
    • C++
    • Java

51. Instructional Support

  • What problems do you need solved and which application software will help solve the problems?
    • Integrated Learning Systems
    • Computer Assisted Instruction
      • Drill, Tutorial, Simulation
    • Textbook Resources
    • Research and Information Access

52. What technology-based resources are available?

  • Technology Plan (District-wide)
  • Technology Plan (Building)
  • Curricula Plan

53. What technology-based resources are available?

  • Stand-alone computer(s) in the classroom
  • Networked computers in the classroom
  • Computer laboratory
  • Computer for every kid


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