miscellaneous ants

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ants are a wide family in the order Hymenoptera ants have different types depend on their morphology and nutrietion ..etc

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  • 1. Chiro Nuri Qadr

2. Miscellaneous ants are different kinds of antswhich comprise a single family ,the Formicidaewithin the order hymenoptera. 3. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arhtropoda Class: Insecta Order: Hymenoptera Suborder: Apocrita Super family: Vespoidea Family: Formicidae Subfamily:Myrmicinae Tribe: Solenopsidinae Genus: Solenopsis Species: S.invicta 4. The name came from the Greek words humen and pteron,meaning membrane and wing.Holometabolous insects. They have egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. They are one of the five megadiverse insect ordersthey are cosmopolitan ,but most species occure in tropics they include phytophagous,parasitoid, and predatory taxa, both solitary and highly social species. They range in size from large to very tiny ones. They have to pair of membraneous wings.fore wings are largerthan hind wings. The ovipositor is used not only for laying eggs, it is also used topass venom and/or other secretions to the place of oviposition. all have a haplodiploid sex determination system. Prothorax is reduced in size forming a narrow band betweenthe head and mesothorax. 5. all ants are eusocial,except a few species which secondarily lost thierworker caste. Ants have diverse systems of communication, but by far the mostimportant medium for signaling involves the chemicals known aspheromones. the nest is covered with nopal, dried grass, and fresh weeds to maintainan environment suitable for survival and regrowth of the colony Polymorphism in ants is accompanied by polyethism Winged individuals are called alatesWorkers are called repletes, store the honey in the abdomenNot all ants are predatory. Some ants harvest grain and seeds and othersfeed on insect-produced honeydew. Antennae is geniculate. Chewing mouthpart. 6. Desert ant Weaver ants 7. Leaf_cutter antsFire ants Red ants 8. Reddish brown ants are well known for theiraggressiveness and stings that are used for defence. They have alkaloidal venoms that produce a burningsensation. Nests are polygyne (multiple queen) Insect venoms are effective specialized allomonestypically consisting of watersoluble proteins andother components that are injected into the body ofan assailant. Honeydew accounts as a sole food for them. 9. Electron micrograph of head 10. Eggs are white. They are either fertilized or unfertilized. Fertilized eggs produce potential queens andworkers Unfertilized eggs produce male.. 11. The larval stage is composed of four instar. Is apodous and resemble maggot. Only the fourth instar can digest solids directly,and it is the only path for processing of solidfood particles in the colonyThe head is only weakly sclerotized or muchreduced . 12. Electron micrograph 13. Pupae are adecticous and exarate withoutcoccon. 14. Adult of fire ants have two castes: -Reproductive caste-Worker caste 15. They are winged and fertile. Consist of both sexes ;male and female (queen). 16. Males are haploid. having only a single set of chromosomes. Males produce genetically homogeneous sperm. 17. Queen is diploid. They can lay both fertilized and unfertilized eggs. They loose their wings after mating. They are about 7 mm long in size. 18. The workers range in size from small to largefrom about 25 mm in length. Fire ant workers can feed only on liquids: theyhave filters in their digestive tract that preventthe ingestion of solids. have reduced ovaries and are irreversibly sterile. There are two main worker castes, nurses andforagers whose members span a wide age-sizerange. Workers have sting appartus for defence. 19. They have complete metamorphoses. 20. Economically:important pests as seed distributors and as seedharvesters, in the turnover of soils, and in theregulation of aphid numbers and theminimization of outbreaks of defoliating insects. 21. One oddity about fire ants is their evident attractionto electrical fields. They frequently enter electricalboxes such as outside air conditioners, traffic boxes,and lights, where they chew wires and short out thecircuits. Fire ants contract their muscles, which makes theraft temporarily less buoyant but traps air better,preventing drowning. They gather up all the eggs in the colony and willmake their way up through the undergroundnetwork of tunnels, and when the flood waters riseabove the ground, theyll link up together in thesemassive rafts. 22. Distribution:Extremely common and cosmopolitan. Habitat: They build their nests in mounds of soiloutdoors, in landscape areas. 23. Books : Resh, Vincent H. and Carde, Ring T. (2003). Encycloprdia of Insects. 1st ed.Elsevier Science.(USA). 20, 29, 31, 165, 242, 293, 415, 416, 436, 534, 535,536, 540, 541 pp. Gullan, P.J. and Cranston, P.S. (2005). The Insects.3rd ed. BlackwellPublishing Ltd. USA. 17, 312, 312 pp. Gillott, Cedric .(2005). Entomology. 3rd ed. Springer. Netherlands. 332. Research articles: John T. Mirenda and S. Bradleigh Vinson.(May 1981). Division of labourand specification of castes in the red imported fire ant Solenopsisinvicta buren. Animal Behaviour, 29(2):410-420 Website : http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/04/pictures/110425-fire-ants-life-rafts-swarms-science-proceedings/?source=link_fb20110425fireantrafts#/fire-ants-form-life-rafts-edge.