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    Chemistry and Nanomaterials

    Carl C. Wamser

    Portland State University

    Nanomaterials Course - June 27, 2006

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    Nanoscale = billionths (10-9)

     6 billion people

    8000 mile diameter 

    10 billion components

    8 inch diameter 

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    Effects of Nanoscale

    Structural differences:

    Bulk Carbon

    Nanoscale Carbon

    arbon Nanotubes

    Sumio !i"ima - 1991

    60 (#uc$e%ball)

    Smalle%& url& 'roto

    1996 Nobel rie

    *raphite +iamond

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    !nstrumentation , !main

    . /uantum orral

    . 28 3e atoms positioned b% the S45 used to

    imae them

    http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/home_facts.html 

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    +imensional !ssues

    nm µm mm m

    Chemistry 

    Biology 

    Electronics

    molecules polymers supramolecular

    assemblies

    amino

    acids

    proteins cells/tissues organisms

      semi-

    conductors transistors integrated

    circuits computers

    ONAMI  length scale:

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    hemistr% !ssues

    . Structure , +%namics , S%nthesis

    . Structure-3unction orrelations

    . Self-ssembled S%stems

    .  pplications:

     7  5aterials

     7  #ioloical

     7  Enironmental

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    ranic E+s

    Structure-3unction orrelations (emission ;aelenths)

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    uantum Effects

    3luorescence of cadmium selenide nanoparticles

    2 nm < nm

    . #and ap depends on particle sie

    (number of atoms in the particle)

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    hemical #ondin

    . 3orces used to assemble structure:  7 !onic

     7 5etallic  7 oalent

     7 -bondin

     7 5etal-liand  7 >an der ?aals

     7 @-@ stac$in

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    !onic #ondin

    . 5olecular bea$er

    epitaA%

    . a%er-b%-la%er ro;th of

    pol%electrol%tes

    . 4om 5allou$

    enn State B

    http:,,;;;CmaprCuclCacCbe,D"onas,omepaeF,Gesearch,ES,ESChtml

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    !onic , Electrostatic Effects

    .   molecular

    eleator 

    . Gesponsie to

    acid,base

    . FC +C #ad"ic& et alC&

     Accts. Chem. Res., 

    in pressC

    . FC3C Stoddart& B

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    !onic , Electrostatic Effects

    . onformational 5olecular Gectifiers& C 4roisi and 5C C Gatner&  Nano Lett C& 2(2)& H91-H9H (

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    5etallic #ondin

    meltin point: 1IIJ K'

    meltin point: 6H0 K'

    *old Statue *old nanoparticles

    Nanoscale old has different properties than bul$ old& includin:

    appearance& solubilit%& and meltin pointC

    thiol stabilied old nanoparticle

    old nanoparticles (< nm) in solutionFim utchison& BC reon

    http://arkw!ng.uoregon.eu/"hutchlab

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    oalent #ondin - arbon

    Sinle-;alled carbon nanotubes:

    . armchair - metallic

    . ia - semiconductin

    . chiral - semiconductin

    . multi-;alled - metallic

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    oalent #ondin - arbon

    arbon nanotubes coated ;ith diamond nanocr%stals

    5C C 4erranoa& et alC& Chem. #ater C& 17 (12) pp 3214 - 3220

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    %droen #ondin

    +N

    +ouble

    eliA

    http://www.havelan.com/ graph!cs/na$%.&pg 

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    '$'  Stac$in - iLuid r%stals

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    hare-4rappin 5emor% +eice

     iu& -MC #ard& CFC  Acc. Chem. ResC

    (1999)& I

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    Self-ssembled 5onola%er 

    . 5onola%er of

    ++# on

    raphite (didodec%lbenene)

    http://www.nanosc!ence.com/eucat!on/galler(/))B_an!.htm

    10 nm

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    >an der ?aals !nteractions

    . S55S

    Self-ssembled

    5onola%ers on

    5esoporous

    Supports

    *len 3r%Aell& NN

    QuickTime™ and a  TIFF (LZW) decompres

    are needed to see this pi

    http://samms.pnl.gov/ 

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    ol%porph%rin !nterfacial 3ilm (thin)

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    ol%porph%rin !nterfacial 3ilm (thic$)

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    hotos%nthetic Geaction enter 

    http://wwwmpibp-!ran"!urtmpgde/#michaelhutter/rcenterhtml

    ( 1$%% &obel 'rie )( 1$%% &obel 'rie )

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