organization of life (how to build a human) atoms atoms molecules molecules macromolecules...

Click here to load reader

Post on 29-Mar-2015

218 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1

ORGANIZATION OF LIFE (HOW TO BUILD A HUMAN) ATOMS ATOMS MOLECULES MOLECULES MACROMOLECULES MACROMOLECULES CELLS CELLS TISSUES TISSUES ORGANS ORGANS ORGAN SYSTEMS ORGAN SYSTEMS ORGANISM (HUMAN) ORGANISM (HUMAN) POPULATION POPULATION COMMUNITY COMMUNITY ECOSYSTEM ECOSYSTEM BIOSPHERE BIOSPHERE Slide 2 HEIRARCHY OF LIFE Slide 3 Slide 4 PRIMARY TISSUE TYPES HISTOLOGY HISTOLOGY study of tissues MUSCLE TISSUE MUSCLE TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUE NERVOUS TISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE Slide 5 PHYSIOLOGY The study of the integrated functions of the vital systems of living organisms The study of the integrated functions of the vital systems of living organisms This study could be of bacteria, plants, animals or humans This study could be of bacteria, plants, animals or humans Slide 6 HOMEOSTASIS Slide 7 HOMEOSTASIS MAINTENANCE OF A RELATIVELY STABLE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT MAINTENANCE OF A RELATIVELY STABLE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Homeostasis is essential for the survival of each cell, and each cell, through its specialized activities, contributes as part of a body system to the maintenance of the internal environment shared by all cells Homeostasis is essential for the survival of each cell, and each cell, through its specialized activities, contributes as part of a body system to the maintenance of the internal environment shared by all cells Slide 8 PARAMETERS THAT ARE HOMEOSTATICALLY REGULATED BLOOD OXYGEN CONCENTRATION BLOOD OXYGEN CONCENTRATION (~200 ml/L in arteries) PULSE-OXYIMETER (~ 99-100%) TOTAL BODY WATER (TBW) = 0.6 x Body Weight TOTAL BODY WATER (TBW) = 0.6 x Body Weight BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION (~ 70-100 mg/dl) BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION (~ 70-100 mg/dl) BLOOD/BODY NUTRIENT LEVEL (Carbohydrates, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, Vitamins, Minerals, etc.) BLOOD/BODY NUTRIENT LEVEL (Carbohydrates, Amino Acids, Fatty Acids, Vitamins, Minerals, etc.) BODY TEMPERATURE (~ 37 C OR ~ 98-99 F) BODY TEMPERATURE (~ 37 C OR ~ 98-99 F) Slide 9 PARAMETERS THAT ARE HOMEOSTATICALLY REGULATED BLOOD CARBON DIOXIDE LEVEL (~ 480 - 520 ml/L) BLOOD CARBON DIOXIDE LEVEL (~ 480 - 520 ml/L) BLOOD pH = ACIDITY/ALKALINITY (~ 7.4) BLOOD pH = ACIDITY/ALKALINITY (~ 7.4) SALT AND OTHER ELECTROLYTE CONCENTRATION SALT AND OTHER ELECTROLYTE CONCENTRATION (Na +, K +, Ca +, Cl -, Mg +, H +, HCO 3 -, PO 4, etc.) BLOOD VOLUME (related to total body water) BLOOD VOLUME (related to total body water) plasma volume, salt and water balance BLOOD PRESSURE BLOOD PRESSURE related to blood volume, cardiac output, & total peripheral resistance METABOLIC WASTE CONCENTRATION IN BLOOD METABOLIC WASTE CONCENTRATION IN BLOOD urea, hormone metabolites, drug metabolites, etc. Slide 10 ORGAN SYSTEMS NERVOUS SYSTEM NERVOUS SYSTEM SKELETAL SYSTEM SKELETAL SYSTEM MUSCULAR SYSTEM MUSCULAR SYSTEM CARDIOVASCULAR (CIRCULATORY) SYSTEM CARDIOVASCULAR (CIRCULATORY) SYSTEM RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LYMPHATIC SYSTEM LYMPHATIC SYSTEM IMMUNE SYSTEM IMMUNE SYSTEM URINARY (EXCRETORY) SYSTEM URINARY (EXCRETORY) SYSTEM DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ENDOCRINE SYSTEM REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Slide 11 ORGAN SYSTEMS Slide 12 NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Most homeostatically controlled parameters in the body are regulated by negative feedback. Most homeostatically controlled parameters in the body are regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback occurs when a change in a controlled variable triggers a response that opposes the change, driving the variable in the opposite direction of the initial change. Negative feedback occurs when a change in a controlled variable triggers a response that opposes the change, driving the variable in the opposite direction of the initial change. Slide 13 Slide 14 POSITIVE FEEDBACK This type of control mechanism is relatively rare in the body because it moves the controlled variable even farther from a steady state. This type of control mechanism is relatively rare in the body because it moves the controlled variable even farther from a steady state. Positive feedback continually enhances the output so that the controlled variable continues to be moved in the direction of the initial change Positive feedback continually enhances the output so that the controlled variable continues to be moved in the direction of the initial change Positive feedback reinforces the change in the same direction. Such action would be comparable to the heat generated by a furnace triggering the thermostat to call for even more heat output from the furnace so that the room temperature would continually rise. Positive feedback reinforces the change in the same direction. Such action would be comparable to the heat generated by a furnace triggering the thermostat to call for even more heat output from the furnace so that the room temperature would continually rise. Examples = Mechanisms of Ovulation and Parturition (Birth) Examples = Mechanisms of Ovulation and Parturition (Birth) Slide 15 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY As we proceed through the course, we will discuss a number of different pathophysiological conditions (diseases and abnormal states) which illustrate physiological mechanisms As we proceed through the course, we will discuss a number of different pathophysiological conditions (diseases and abnormal states) which illustrate physiological mechanisms Pathophysiology refers to the study of the abnormal functioning of the body (altered physiology) associated with disease. Pathophysiology refers to the study of the abnormal functioning of the body (altered physiology) associated with disease. Slide 16 Slide 17 PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Slide 18 Slide 19 ORGANIC MOLECULES Slide 20 CARBOHYDRATES MONOSACCHARDIES & DISACCHARIDE Slide 21 STRUCTURE OF GLYCOGEN Slide 22 POLYSACCHARIDES = many simple sugar units linked together Slide 23 MONOGLYCERIDE = one molecule of glycerol linked to one fatty acid molecule Slide 24 LIPIDS - TRIGLYCERIDES (FATS) Slide 25 FAT = FATTY ACID TRIGLYCERIDE = one molecule of glycerol linked to three fatty acid molecules Slide 26 CHOLESTEROL = a different type of lipid Slide 27 LIPOSOME = the double layer of lipids that helps form cell membranes to separate a cell from other cells and the environment Slide 28 STRUCTURE OF AN AMINO ACID = the building block of proteins Slide 29 AMINO ACIDS ARE LINKED TOGETHER BY PEPTIDE BONDS TO FORM PROTEINS Slide 30 PROTEINS/PEPTIDES (PRIMARY STRUCTURE) Slide 31 LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE = amino acid chains fold up in specific ways at the molecular level to give the protein an overall specific three dimensional shape and thus a specific function Slide 32 MUSCLE IS MADE MOSTLY OF PROTEIN Slide 33 HUMAN MUSCLE FIBERS Slide 34 HAIR IS MADE MOSTLY OF PROTEIN Slide 35 AN ENZYME = A BIOLOGICAL CATALYST MOST ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS Slide 36 DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID) Slide 37 A DNA NUCLEOTIDE = THE BUILDING BLOCK OF A LARGER DNA MOLECULE Slide 38 A CHAIN OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES Slide 39 THE DNA DOUBLE HELIX = TWO STRANDS OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES BONDED TOGETHER Slide 40 HORMONES Hormone = a chemical (molecule) released from one cell or tissue that regulates the function of another cell or tissue. Hormones are always transported in the blood. Hormone = a chemical (molecule) released from one cell or tissue that regulates the function of another cell or tissue. Hormones are always transported in the blood. Slide 41 TYPES OF HORMONES BASED ON THEIR CHEMICAL STRUCTURE STEROIDS = have a structure similar to cholesterol STEROIDS = have a structure similar to cholesterol PROTEINS = chains of amino acids PROTEINS = chains of amino acids FATTY ACIDS = look somewhat like fat FATTY ACIDS = look somewhat like fat AMINES = contain a special nitrogen group AMINES = contain a special nitrogen group Slide 42 EXAMPLES OF HORMONES STEROIDS STEROIDS Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone PROTEINS PROTEINS LH, FSH, GnRH (these regulate the gonads) FATTY ACIDS FATTY ACIDS Prostaglandins (these cause cramps) AMINES AMINES Adrenaline, Serotonin Slide 43 LIGHT MICROSCOPE Slide 44 ELECTRON MICROSCOPE Slide 45 Slide 46 ANIMAL (HUMAN) CELL Slide 47 CELL BIOLOGY Slide 48 AN ANIMAL CELL Slide 49 CELLS ARE SMALL THEY NEED A LARGE SURFACE AREA FOR THE TRANSPORT OF NUTRIENTS IN AND WASTES OUT Slide 50 AN ANIMAL CELL SHOWING ORGANELLES ORGANELLE = A COMPARTMENTALIZED STRUCTURE IN A CELL THAT PERFORMS A SPECIFIC FUNCTION FOR THE CELL Slide 51 A BACTERIA CELL = NO CELL NUCLEUS THESE TYPES OF CELLS ARE PROKARYOTIC Slide 52 E. COLI = A BACTERIA FOUND IN YOUR INTESTINES Slide 53 CELL NUCLEUS AND ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Slide 54 CELL NUCLEI Slide 55 THE ROUGH ER MAKES PROTEINS THAT WILL BE RELEASED FROM CELLS Slide 56 MITOCHONDRIA = MAKES CELL ENERGY IN THE FORM OF A MOLECULE CALLED ATP Slide 57 CELL CYTOSKELETON = PROTEIN FIBERS THAT GIVE THE CELL ITS SHAPE Slide 58 FLAGELLA = SPERM TAIL Slide 59 ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM Slide 60 CELLS DIVIDING IN AN EARLY EMBRYO Slide 61 CHROMOSOMES IN THE CELL NUCLEUS CHROMOSOMES ARE MADE OF DNA Slide 62 CHROMOSOMES DUPLICATE BEFORE CELLS DIVIDE Slide 63 THE CELL CYCLE = THE DAY-TO-DAY LIFE OF A CELL Slide 64 THE HUMAN LIFE CYCLE Slide 65 A DIVIDING CELL Slide 66 SKIN CELLS ARE CONSTANTLY DIVIDING Slide 67 BREAST CELLS NORMAL CANCEROUS Slide 68 CELL DIVISION - MITOSIS Slide 69 Slide 70 INTERPHASE Slide 71 PROPHASE Slide 72 SPINDLE FIBERS FORM DURING CELL DIVISION TO MOVE CHROMOSOMES Slide 73 INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT OF CHROMOSOMES Slide 74 MOUSE TRAITS Slide 75 CROSSING OVER = Chromosomes break off and re-attach to recombine genes between homologous chromosomes = OCCURS DURING PROPHASE Slide 76 CROSSING OVER OF CHROMOSOMES CREATES RECOMBINED CHROMOSOMES Slide 77 METAPHASE Slide 78 ANAPHASE Slide 79 TELOPHASE Slide 80 CELL DIVISION - MITOSIS Slide 81 MEIOSIS MEIOSIS I Slide 82 MEIOSIS MEIOSIS II Slide 83 COMPARISON OF MITOSIS AND MEI

View more