renaissance/reformation chapter 13. renaissance renaissance means â€“rebirth it was...
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Renaissance/Reformation Chapter 13 Slide 2 Renaissance Renaissance means Rebirth It was a time of change in Politics, Social Structure, Economics, and Culture. Changed from an agricultural society to an Urban Society It was a study of Roman and Greek cultures. Slide 3 Renaissance Attitudes live life on earth fully develop individual talent public service and politics Slide 4 Humanism an intellectual movement that studied the ancient Greeks and Romans in an effort to better understand their own times Spiritual Secular Humanities- grammar, rhetoric, poetry, & history Slide 5 Reasons for Italian Renaissance Past greatness of Rome Money from trade and rising middle class Slide 6 Major Cities Florence- richest Bankers and Merchants Patron- financial supporter (e.g. The Medici Family, Lorenzo in particular) Venice Trade Milan Textiles Slide 7 Art Humanistic Reflection Combination of religious and secular Reflections of individualism and public service Perspective depth added to art Use of shading New oil paints Study of human anatomy Slide 8 Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance Man -Anatomy, Engineering, Painting, Scuplture, Botany, Optics, Music Works: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Michelangelo Buonarroti Most well-known, the greatest Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, poet Works: David, Pieta, Sistine Chapel Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Raphael Mastered the use of PERSPECTIVE!!!! Known Work: School of Athens Slide 18 Slide 19 Donatello Known for his use of Balance and Proportion Taught Michelangelo Slide 20 Literature Honoring the history of Rome and Greece Criticizing the Middle ages and current government Baldassare Castiglione The Book of the Courtier How a member of a court should live! Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince How one should gain and maintain power Slide 21 Printing Revolution Printing Press: Gutenberg first Book?? printed with movable type prior: Handwritten books advantages: more books are published higher supply of books leads to lower price lower price allows more people to read more communication of ideas results from more reading Slide 22 Art in N. Renaissance Flanders France, Belgium, and Netherlands Major area of Renaissance art Albrecht Drurer: studied in Italy German artist Applied ideas of art to engravings Engraving: etching Perfected by Drurer Slide 23 Literature Vernacular: everyday language Desiderius Erasmus: The Praise of the Folly Greek Bible Sir Thomas More Utopia William Shakespeare Poet and playwright 37 plays still performed today Slide 24 Reformation Spiritual Break-down of the Christian Church Catalyzed by ideas of the Renaissance and the invention of the Printing Press Led to the current Christian demographics Slide 25 Church Abuses Pope as military commander? Lavish lives of the Clergy Marriage of the Clergy Selling of Indulgences Indulgences: payment to get soul out of purgatory Slide 26 Early Revolts John Wycliffe used sermons and writings to attack the church in 1300s Martin Luther Primary catalyst of the Reformation German Monk and Professor Writes the 95 Theses and nails to door in Wittenberg Set off by Johann Tetzel selling indulgences and promising entry to heaven Slide 27 Results of the 95 Theses No intention of starting the Reformation Printing Revolution lights a fire storm Church asked Luther to recant, he refused Luther urged people to reject the authority of Rome Luther was excommunicated in 1521 by Pope Leo X Slide 28 Summoning Luther summoned to Diet of Worms by Charles V Asked to recant a second time, refused again Charles declared Luther an outlaw Slide 29 Luthers Teachings All have equal access to the Bible Schools est., vernacular translation Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints Simplified the sermon Allowed clergy to marry Slide 30 Why were Luthers Teachings supported by the Germans? Gain authority over the church Gain church property for selfish reasons National loyalty German money should stay in German lands Slide 31 Peasant Revolt Peasants rise up for social and economic equality Luther denounces and supports political authority and social order Slide 32 The Peace of Augsburg 1555 Princes get the choice of religion Slide 33 Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli Priest in Zurich Stressed importance of bible, reject elaborate rituals John Calvin Major contributor to the Reformation Published a book on how to set up and run a church as well as his beliefs that should be the basis of that church Slide 34 John Calvin cont. Preached PREDESTINATION Everything is already decided Sinners/saints Geneva asks Calvin to lead the community Est. theocracy Harsh punishments for basic activities of dancing, laughing in church, ect. Helped set off bloody wars Slide 35 Religious Development Sect: religious groups variations of the teachings of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli Anabaptists: reject infantile baptism Today: Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish Slide 36 English Reformation Henry VIII- king of England Henry + Catherine of Aragon = Mary Tudor Anne Boleyn - served Catherine Annulment declined because Charles V was the nephew of Catherine Slide 37 Henrys Take Over Act of Supremacy passed King is head of Church Many executed: Thomas More Canonized: recognized as a saint Henry merely changed the name of the Church Thomas Cramer appointed to be bishop of the new Church Slide 38 The Tudors Died in 1547: 9yr old Edward VI took throne Continued Protestantism Book of Common Prayer Mary Tudor Bloody Mary took over Tried returning to Catholicism Was killed in protest Elizabeth slowly returns to Protestantism Compromise: acceptable middle ground Slide 39 CatholicsElizabethan Comprimise Protestants - Hierarchy of Catholicism -Monarch can make changes -Restored Book of Common Prayer -English instead of Latin -Protestant Doctrine Slide 40 The Catholic Reformation Reformation or Counter-Reformation? Council of Trent- est. schools, end corruption, faith and works = salvation, Bible is not the only source of religious truth Reaffirmed the inquisition Index of Forbidden Books Slide 41 People of the Catholic Reformation Ignatius of Loyola Spanish knight Society of Jesus Jesuits Missionaries, schools, strict discipline to the church Teresa of Avila entered convent very young Not strict enough Set up own order Life of isolation, eating and sleeping very little Canonized by the church Slide 42 Widespread Persecution Witch hunts Jews forced to live in ghettoes Jews were forced to move and temples were burned