scada va hmi

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  • 1. Luan Van Tot Nghiep GVHD: Nguyen c Thanh Chng 1 GII THIEU VE SCADA VA HMI I.Khai niem ve SCADA va HMI Th trng tieu thu hang hoa luon oi hoi khong ngng nang cao chat lng, giam gia thanh, oi mi ket cau, mau ma san pham. Nhu cau o at ra yeu cau tm kiem mot phng thc san xuat mi e tao nen cac day chuyen san xuat t ong cho phep nhanh chong thay oi mau ma, loai san pham. Day chuyen t ong cng gom nhieu thiet b t ong chuyen dung oi hoi von au t ln, nhieu thi gian e thiet ke va che tao, trong luc quy trnh cong nghe luon cai tien, nhu cau oi vi chat lng va quy cach cua san pham luon thay oi. Bi vay nhu cau men hoa hay linh hoat day chuyen san xuat ngay cang tang. Cac day chuyen san xuat co kha nang thay oi nhanh chong lai khong ton nhieu cong suat e chuyen sang san xuat san pham mi, sang mot quy trnh cong nghe mi. e ap ng c nhu cau tren, yeu cau phai co mot he thong san xuat mi. He thong san xuat t ong linh hoat hay goi tat la he thong san xuat linh hoat (FMS) ap dung thanh tu khoa hoc va ky thuat ve tin hoc, ky thuat ieu khien so, ieu khien ngi may. at biet la mo hnh san xuat t ong Workcell te bao san xuat t ong la n v c ban co kha nang lam viec oc lap hoan toan vi cac bo phan khac trong nha may, no am ng viec thc hien hoan tat mot cong oan trong quy trnh san xuat. Mot workcell hien ai con co the bien oi chc nang lam viec e phu hp vi nhu cau mi cung nh ket noi vi cac workcell khac e tao nen day chuyen san xuat linh hoat. Day chuyen cong nghiep dung ngi may c ieu khien bang may tnh ien t cung vi cac thiet b gia cong ieu khien so dang NC va CNC tao ra kha nang de dang thay oi quy trnh lam viec, s thuyen chuyen cong viec co the thc hien chu yeu ch bang s thay oi chng trnh cho may tnh . Cac thiet b nay thay the dan cac may t ong cng .He thong san xuat linh hoat bao gom nhieu van e phc tap nh: cau truc to chc, quan ly cac phan t c ban trong he thong en viec anh gia li ch, cac van e xa hoi ma he thong san xuat gay ra. He thong ieu khien giam sat va thu thap d lieu (SCADA) la mot phng thc tien tien ieu khien he thong san xuat t ong trong cong nghiep va phng thc ieu khien SCADA co the c ng dung vao viec giam sat va ieu khien te bao san xuat workcell. Vay ta se gii thieu s lc ve he thong SCADA He SCADA ra i vao nhng nam 80 tren c s ng dung ky thuat tin hoc, mang may tnh va truyen thong cong nghiep SVTH: Lu Van Khoa Trang 1
  • 2. Luan Van Tot Nghiep GVHD: Nguyen c Thanh Giong nh nhieu t viet tat co tnh truyen thong khac, khai niem SCADA ( Supervisory Control And Acquisition) cung c hieu vi nhng y ngha khac nhau, tuy theo lnh vc ng dung va theo thi gian. Co the, khi noi ti SCADA ngi ta ch lien tng ti mot he thong mang va thiet b co nhiem vu thuan tuy la thu thap d lieu t cac tram xa va truyen tai ve mot khu trung tam e x ly. Cac he thong ng dung trong cong nghiep khai thac dau kh va phan phoi nang lng la nhng v du tieu bieu. Theo cach hieu nay, van e truyen thong c at len hang au. Trong nhieu trng hp, cac khai niem SCADA va None-SCADA lai c dung e phan biet cac giai phap ieu khien giam sat dung cong cu phan mem chuyen dung (v du FIX, InTouch, WinCC, Lookout,) hay phan mem pho thong (Acess, Excel, Visual Basic, Delphi, Jbuilder,). ay, cong nghe phan mem la van e quan tam chu yeu Noi mot cach tong quat, mot he SCADA khong co g khac la mot he thong ieu khien giam sat, tc la mot he thong ho tr con ngi trong viec quan sat va ieu khien t xa, cap cao hn he ieu khien thong thng. ng nhien, e co the quan sat va ieu khien t xa can phai co mot he thong truy cap ( khong ch thu thap! ) va truyen tai d lieu, cung nh can phai co giao dien ngi -may (Human - Machine Interface, HMI). Tuy theo trong tam cua nhiem vu ma ngi ta co nhng cach nhn khac nhau. Tuy nhien mot he SCADA thng phai co u nhng thanh phan sau ay : +Giao dien ngi may (s o cong nghe, o th, phm thao tac,) +C s ha tang truyen thong cong nghiep +Phan mem ket noi vi cac nguon d lieu (drivers cho cac PLC, cac module vao/ra , cho cac he thong bus trng +C s d lieu qua trnh +Cac chc nang ho tr trao oi tin tc(Messaging ) va x ly s co (Alarm). Ho tr lap bao cao (Reporting) Hay noi mot cach tong quat hn, he SCADA bao gom cac thanh phan chnh nh sau: +Tram ieu khien trung tam (Master Station ): Co nhiem vu thu thap, lu tr, x ly so lieu va a ra cac lenh ieu khien xuong cac tram c s +He thong tram c s (Operation Station ): la cac tram c at tai hien trng co nhiem vu thu thap, x ly so lieu trong mot pham vi nhat nh va gi cac so lieu ve tram trung tam ong thi thc hien cac lenh ieu khien t tram trung tam SVTH: Lu Van Khoa Trang 2
  • 3. Luan Van Tot Nghiep GVHD: Nguyen c Thanh +Mang li truyen tin: c xay dng tren c s mang may tnh va truyen thong cong nghiep co chc nang am bao thong tin hai chieu gia tram ieu khien trung tam va cac tram c s Nh ta thay, HMI la mot thanh phan trong he SCADA, tuy nhien khong phai ch cap ieu khien giam sat, ma ngay cac cap thap hn ngi ta cung can giao dien ngi may phuc vu viec quan sat va thao tac van hanh cuc bo. V ly do gia thanh, ac tnh ky thuat cung nh pham vi chc nang, cac cap gan vi qua trnh ky thuat nay cac OP (Operator Panel) chuyen dung chiem vai tro quan trong hn S tien bo trong cong nghe phan mem va ky thuat may tnh PC, ac biet la s chiem lnh th trng cua he ieu hanh Windows NT cung vi cac cong nghe cua Microsoft a thuc ay s phat trien cua cac cong cu tao dng phan mem SCADA theo mot hng mi, s dung PC va Windows NT lam nen phat trien va cai at. T pham vi chc nang thuan tuy la thu thap d lieu cho viec quan sat, theo doi qua trnh, mot he SCADA ngay nay co the am nhiem vai tro ieu khien cao cap, ieu khien phoi hp. Phng phap ieu khien theo me, ieu khien theo cong thc (batch control, recipe control) la nhng v du tieu bieu. Hn the na, kha nang tch hp he thong ieu khien giam sat vi cac ng dung khac nhau trong mot he thong thong tin, cac phan mem quan ly, toi u hoa he thong,..cua toan cong ty cung tr nen de dang hn. Trong giai phap ieu khien phan tan, he thong truyen thong cap di (bus trng, bus chap hanh cam bien) a co san. Neu nh mang may tnh cua mot cong ty cung a c trang b (chu yeu dung Ethernet),th c s ha tang cho viec truyen thong khong con la van e ln phai giai quyet. Chnh v vay, trong tam cua viec xay dng cac giai phap SCADA trong thi iem hien nay la van e la chon cong cu phan mem thiet ke giao dien va tch hp he thong. II.Nguyen tac hoat ong cua he thong SCADA He thong SCADA hoat ong da tren nguyen tac lay tn hien t cac c cau cam bien c gan tren cac thiet b cong tac hoac tren day truyen san xuat gi ve cho may tnh (thc hien phan thu nhan d lieu ) . May tnh x ly, kiem tra trang thai hoat ong cua he thong, cac yeu cau ky thuat cua san pham a c cai san trong bo nh. ong thi, may tnh se hien th lai nhng thong tin ky thuat cua he thong tren man hnh, cho phep t ong giam sat va ieu khien he thong va phat ra tn hieu ieu khien en may SVTH: Lu Van Khoa Trang 3
  • 4. Luan Van Tot Nghiep GVHD: Nguyen c Thanh cong tac tao nen vong tn hieu kn (thc hien chc nang giam sat va ieu khien) Viec ieu khien giam sat ay bao ham hai y ngha : +Con ngi theo doi va ieu khien +May tnh giam sat va ieu khien oi vi cac he thong san xuat t ong trc ay, viec kiem tra giam sat hoan toan do con ngi am trach. So vi may tnh, toc o x ly tnh toan cua con ngi rat cham va de nham lan .Viec tnh toan ieu khien cua may tnh se tranh c nhng hau qua tren. Nhng sai sot nho, n gian thng xuyen gap phai se c may tnh giam sat va x ly theo chng trnh c at san. oi vi nhng s co ln may tnh se bao cho ngi theo doi biet va tam dng hoat ong cua he thong e ch quyet nh cua ngi ieu hanh. V vay, ben canh kha nang hoat ong toan he thong theo mot chng trnh nh trc, he SCADA con cho phep ngi van hanh quan sat c trang thai lam viec cua tng thiet b tai cac tram c s, a ra cac canh bao, bao ong khi he thong co s co va thc hien cac lenh ieu khien can thiep vao hoat ong cua he thong khi co tnh huong bat thng hay co s co III.Chc nang va nhiem vu c ban cua he thong SCADA: 1.Giam sat va phan tch hoat ong san xuat: Ngay khi nhan biet c nhng thong tin ve hoat ong cua he thong t cac bo phan cam bien gi ve, may tnh se phan tch nhng tn hieu o va so sanh vi nhng tn hieu chuan, vi nhng tn hieu yeu cau t cac tap tin ve cau hnh hoat ong cua he thong san xuat, hay cac bang c s d lieu ve san pham, quy trnh san xuat, cac thong so cong nghe cua cac may cong tac(d lieu tham khao). Nh cac bo phan cam bien, cac thiet b o lng ma trong qua trnh san xuat luon thong bao cho ngi giam sat biet c cac thong tin ve tien trnh hoat ong san xuat, cac thong so ky thuat ,so lng san pham... Viec giam sat ay bao ham hai y ngha: +May tnh giam sat +Con ngi giam sat Viec theo doi giam sat chu yeu la do may tnh, con ngi ch ong vai tro phu, chuyen theo doi nhng bien co ln nguy hiem en he thong san xuat. Nhng truc trac nho hay nhng sai lech thng xuyen gap phai se c may tnh sa cha theo chng trnh c cai san SVTH: Lu Van Khoa Trang 4
  • 5. Luan Van Tot Nghiep GVHD: Nguyen c Thanh 2.Hoat ong theo chng trnh ieu khien Ngoai cac chc nang truyen thong la so sanh e ieu khien c cau tac ong, ta con co the cho he thong hoat ong theo mot chng trnh a lap t trc. Nh co bo vi x ly ta co the lap trnh cho he thong hoat ong theo nhng chu trnh phc tap, may tnh se oc chng trnh va xuat tn hieu ieu khien cho cac c cau hoat ong theo chng trnh Viec thay oi chu trnh hoat ong cua may tnh hay thay oi kch thc mau ma san pham ch la viec thay oi chng trnh. Mau ma, kch thc

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