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  • H U M A N

    R I G H T S

    W A T C H

    Schools and Armed ConflictA Global Survey of Domestic Laws and State PracticeProtecting Schools from Attack and Military Use

  • Schools and Armed Conflict A Global Survey of Domestic Laws and State Practice

    Protecting Schools from Attack and Military Use

  • Copyright 2011 Human Rights Watch All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 1-56432-794-9 Cover design by Rafael Jimenez Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA Tel: +1 212 290 4700, Fax: +1 212 736 1300 hrwnyc@hrw.org Poststrae 4-5 10178 Berlin, Germany Tel: +49 30 2593 06-10, Fax: +49 30 2593 0629 berlin@hrw.org Avenue des Gaulois, 7 1040 Brussels, Belgium Tel: + 32 (2) 732 2009, Fax: + 32 (2) 732 0471 hrwbe@hrw.org 64-66 Rue de Lausanne 1202 Geneva, Switzerland Tel: +41 22 738 0481, Fax: +41 22 738 1791 hrwgva@hrw.org 2-12 Pentonville Road, 2nd Floor London N1 9HF, UK Tel: +44 20 7713 1995, Fax: +44 20 7713 1800 hrwuk@hrw.org 27 Rue de Lisbonne 75008 Paris, France Tel: +33 (1)43 59 55 35, Fax: +33 (1) 43 59 55 22 paris@hrw.org 1630 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 500 Washington, DC 20009 USA Tel: +1 202 612 4321, Fax: +1 202 612 4333 hrwdc@hrw.org Web Site Address: http://www.hrw.org

  • July 2011 ISBN: 1-56432-794-9

    Schools and Armed Conflict A Global Survey of Domestic Laws and State Practice Protecting Schools

    from Attack and Military Use

    Summary and Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 1

    Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 17 Protecting Education Buildings from Attack ................................................................................ 17 Protecting Education Institutions from Military Occupation ......................................................... 18

    Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 21

    Terminology..................................................................................................................................... 24

    I. Implicit Protection from Attack: Protections for Civilian Objects ............................................... 26 International Humanitarian Law ................................................................................................ 26 Domestic Law and State Practice................................................................................................ 27

    II. Explicit Protection from Attack: Criminalizing Deliberate Attacks on Education Buildings ............ 33 International Humanitarian and Criminal Law ............................................................................. 34

    Early Protections ................................................................................................................. 34 International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia ..................................................... 35 Special Panels for Serious Crimes in East Timor ................................................................... 37 International Criminal Court ................................................................................................ 38

    Domestic Law and State Practice................................................................................................ 39

    III. Protecting Education Buildings from Military Use ...................................................................... 46 International Humanitarian Law ................................................................................................. 47

    General Protections for Education during Military Occupation ............................................. 49 Education Buildings as Cultural Property ............................................................................. 50

    Human Rights Law ..................................................................................................................... 50 Domestic Law and State Practice................................................................................................ 52

    Countries with Explicit Prohibitions or Explicit Restrictions on the Use of Schools ................ 52 Countries with Implicit Restrictions on the Use of Schools ................................................... 57 Countries that Do Not Use Schools, Regardless of Any Obligation ....................................... 60 Other State Practice ........................................................................................................... 60 Countries with a Constitutional Right to Education ............................................................... 65

  • Appendix: Laws and State Practice by Country ................................................................................ 66 Albania ..................................................................................................................................... 66 Argentina ................................................................................................................................... 67 Australia ................................................................................................................................... 68 Azerbaijan ................................................................................................................................. 70 Bangladesh ............................................................................................................................... 71 Belgium ..................................................................................................................................... 73 Bosnia and Herzegovina ............................................................................................................ 74 Brazil ......................................................................................................................................... 76 Bulgaria ..................................................................................................................................... 77 Burundi ..................................................................................................................................... 79 Canada ..................................................................................................................................... 80 Chile .......................................................................................................................................... 83 China......................................................................................................................................... 85 Colombia .................................................................................................................................. 86 Czech Republic ......................................................................................................................... 89 Democratic Republic of Congo .................................................................................................. 90 Ecuador .................................................................................................................................... 92 El Salvador ................................................................................................................................ 93 Estonia ...................................................................................................................................... 95 Fiji ............................................................................................................................................ 96 Finland ..................................................................................................................................... 98 France ...................................................................................................................................... 99 Germany .................................................................................................................................. 100 Greece ..................................................................................................................................... 102 Hungary ................................................................................................................................... 104 India ........................................................................................................................................ 105 Ireland ..................................................................................................................................... 109 Israel ....................................................................................................................................... 110 Italy .......................................................................................................................................... 113 Japan ........................................................................................................................................ 115 Jordan ..................................................................................................................................... 116 Latvia ...................................................................................................................................... 118 Lithuania ................................................................................................................................. 119 Mali ................................................................