specific learning disabilities

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About learning disabilities for special education paraprofessionals.

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  • 1. Specific Learning DisabilitiesA Neurological DisorderA Workshop for Paraprofessionals

2. Who am I?Gale E. Cossette, Ph.D.Reading interventionist VVCSLD Specialist/Reading SpecialistHighly Qualified in Elementary Special Education,Reading, Elementary Educator, and Early ChildhoodPresident of the NH Branch of the Learning DisabilityAssociationDevelop online professional development courses forOPEN NH and teach them. 3. AGENDAIndividual activityThe brain and learningLearning disabilities and causesNH definition of SLDTypesWhat they look likeIn class strategiesResources 4. The BrainFrontal LobeBehavior, attention,creativity, intellect,libido, abstractthought, reasoning,non-verbal learning,Occipital Lobespeech, and smellReading, visionTemporal LobeHearing, memory fear,some language,speech and auditorymemories 5. Left Side & Right SideLeft RightLots of readingNew learningWritingPictures, diagramsAssignmentsVideoinvolving readingTalks about feelingsand analyzingSocial ActivitiesAttention to detailMusicQuantitative The Big PicturemethodsOrganized approach Creative projectsto assignments New LearningEducation favors the left side of the brain Best to teach to both 6. How Learning OccursThe more dendrites the betterCan increase dendrites through active learningTransmit nerve signals to the brain at 200 mph AxonDendrites 7. LearningElectrical charges synapsesDopamine helps electrical charges go to dendritesRepeated activities strengthen chargesAn active and challenged brain creates more dendritesSynapse 8. The Brain and Learning Disabilities Exposure to toxins Genetics Birthing factors Symmetry of brain Developmental disruptions Nutrition Tobacco/Alcohol/Drugs 9. Learning DisabilitiesAny disability that affects/inhibits achild to acquire and apply knowledgeAutismTraumatic Brain DisorderMental RetardationSpecific Learning Disability 10. Specific Learning Disability It is a lifelong disability. RTI Discrepancy Model Child does not achieve according toage and ability levels in one ormore identified criteria and hasbeen provided with the opportunityto achieve. 11. NH Specific Learning Disability CriteriaTeam find a severe discrepancy in: Oral ExpressionListening ComprehensionWritten Expression 12. Criteria - ContinuedBasic Reading SkillReading ComprehensionMathematics CalculationMathematics Reasoning 13. BUT, Not a Learning Disability, If: Severe discrepancy is a result of Visual, hearing, or motor impairment Mental Retardation Emotional Disturbance Environmental, Cultural, or Economic Disadvantage 14. DisclaimerThe following are different types of learning disabilities,what they might look like in the classroom, andstrategies to use in the classroom.They do not suggest that a student has a disabilitybecause he/she displays these signs.To identify a child as having a learning disability entailsa team approach and the following of the specialeducational process. 15. Listening ComprehensionCentral Auditory Processing DisorderDifficulty processing information or language, but no problems withremembering non-verbal language or soundProcess sounds slowly, but difficulty in repeating them.Misspells/mispronounces similar sounding words (celery/salary, three/free)Often distracted by other noisesDifficulty in staying focused on and remember verbal presentationsMisinterpret or difficulty following verbal directionsDifficulty with rapid speechIgnores people, especially when engrossedSays What? a lot, even when he has just heard what was saidLiteral, does not get puns or jokes 16. Listening Comprehension StrategiesStudent to constantly verbalize conceptsAllow student 5-10 seconds to respondShow vs. explainingSpeak slowerVisual cues, manipulatives, handoutsVary pitch and toneReword/help understand confusing oral directionsAvoid child listening and writing at the same timeAsk specific questions to see if student understandsReduce or space directions Ready?Provide favorable seating less distractionsTeachers look at student when speaking 17. Visual Perceptual/Motor Deficit Affects Reading/Writing/ComprehensionSubstitutes small sight words (I/me, he/she)Letter reversalsEye itches, blurs, painHolds head at odd angles while readingHolds pencil too tightly/breaks pencilsCannot copy accuratelyLooses place while readingStruggles to cut and/or pasteMessy papers/misaligned letters 18. Oral ExpressionDifficulty in expressing thoughts verballyDifficulty labeling objectsFrustrated by having to say a lot and no way tosay itCan describe a word or draw it, but cannot retrievethe wordDifficulty getting jokes 19. Oral Expression StrategiesProvide alternatives:Video taping/tape recordWritten/visualWork/practice with a peerProvide plenty of opportunities to build priorknowledgeProvide classroom discussion topics before handSpeaking slowlyPractice story mappingGraphic organizers 20. Introduce F.A.T. CitySimulationHow children with a learningdisability perceives the classroomand its daily activities. 21. Three DyssBad, impairedDyslexiaDygraphiaDyscalculia 22. DyslexiaReadingSlow, painful readingDecoding errors/reversalsEncoding problemsMay have difficulty w/writingDifficulty recalling known wordsWritten languageMath computations 23. DyslexiaQuiet areas for reading activitiesBooks on tapeLarge print books/big spacesDont count off for spellingLaptop for writingMulti-sensory methods of teachingUse logic vs. rote memoryPresent material in small unitsUse different colored chalk on board for each linePre-teach in class reading and assign a passagePaired reading 24. Dyslexia Strategies, ContSpelling RulesTeach to find errorsAllow students to dictate creative storiesTracking toolsExperiment with pastel, embossed, or raisedline paperRestrict copying tasks 25. DysgraphiaWritten ExpressionHard to read writingMixture of cursive/printingUnfinished words/letters or omits wordsOdd wrist, body, or paper positionDifficulty pre-visualizing lettersWriting very slow and laboriousPoor spatial planning on paperCramped or unusual gripDifficulty thinking and writing notes at the same time 26. DysgraphiaUse a word processorCorrections about writing privatelyOral testingTape recorderProvide notes/note takerPre-printed math problemsWide rule paper or linesPencil gripsAlternatives to writing assignmentsGrade content vs. writing 27. DyscalculiaMathDifficulty understanding math concepts (place value, quantity, numberlines)Word problemsSequencingSteps in solving problemsUnderstanding fractionsDifficulty recognizing patterns in X, -, +, and /Challenged when making changePutting language to math processesTime, days of the week, keeping numbers lined upOrganization on paper 28. Dyscalculia Allow the use of finger/other devices Use diagrams/draw out concepts Peer assistance Graph paper, colored pencilsManipulativesTeach how to draw picturesMnemonic devicesRhythm/MusicComputersPlenty of scratch paper w/linesSpace 29. Resourceshttp://www.ldanh.org/ NH Branch ofLDAhttp://www.bookshare.org/web/Welcome.html Books on tape - free forschoolshttp://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/adults/index.asp Adults with learningdisabilities

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