technological, pedagogical, content knowledge unfolded
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Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge Unfolded: A Case Study
Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge Unfolded: A Case StudyMei Lick, CHEOK & DR. Wong Su Luan
IntroductionTeachers are expected to integrate technology into their teaching and learning processes.Learning Management System (LMS) are provided in all the schools.Teacher Training Institutes shoulder part of this responsibility.Preparing student teachers to be ready to integrate technology in their future practices.This study examined a teacher trainers effort in integrating technology in her classrooms.
Hybrid theoretical lensPurpose of StudyUsing the hybrid theoretical lens adapted from Toh, Wong, Chai, Lee and Ng (2013), understanding towards the following research questions hope to obtained:
How was the knowledge of TPACK distributed in the process of knowledge creation?How was the integration of TPACK enacted in the training room?What emerged as a result of the complex interaction of TPACK? What is TPACK?Technological, pedagogical, content knowledge (TPACK) used as framework to understand how teachers synthesise the different knowledge bases when integrating technology in their classrooms.
What is TPACK?TPACK espoused in the understanding that meaningful and engaged learning takes place when there is an interplay between the three constructs.
What is Complexity Theory?Complexity theory is used to explain how complex systems emerge and maintained.Complex systems are composed of agents that interact with and adapt to one another and the environment, co-evolving and self-organising without any central control (Frenken, 2006).With this theory, one studies cognitive processes, activities and situated learning , and also how people interact with their environment and others, adapt to their interactions, and organise complex system of behaviours.
What is Complexity Theory?This study adopts three of Syversons (2008) complexity construct
MethodologyContextTeacher trainers have the liberty to choose whether or not to integrate ICT in their lessons. In 2011, Teacher Training Institutes started their distance learning courses for in-service teachers to pursue their degrees.With this LMS became more important. However, trainers use of the LMS have been less than satisfactory. This study hopes to provide vivid process data that illuminates a trainers TPACK through the complex construct framework. MethodologyProfile of the Trainer30 years of teaching experience.Geography as her major for both her first degree and Masters.Actively involved at national level; writing modules, and training.Strong advocate of technology as a tool to improve students learning and develop ones professional productivity. Pseudonym of Sam will be used to refer to the trainer
MethodologyResearch DesignCase study is an in-depth description and analysis of a bounded system. The case can be a single person who is a case example of some phenomenon, a programme, a group, an instituition, a community or a specific policy ( Merriam, 2009).For it to be a case study, it has to be on the basis of its uniqueness, success, etc.If there is no limit to the number of people to be studied, then the phenomenon is not bounded enough to qualify as a case.Data in this study is analysed from a critical theorys perspective.
Methodology: Case StudyDirect observation in natural settings, access to their subjective factors; thoughts, feelings, desiresSpread the net for evidence widelyIt reveals about a phenomenon, knowledge to which we otherwise have no access toThis study undertakes instrumental case study which is when the researcher wants to capture an insight into an issue or to redraw a generalisation.
MethodologyQualitative case study can be characterised as the following.
MethodologyThe issue of generalizability looms larger in a case studyBut readers can learn vicariously here through the researchers narrative description.Here it is the reader who determines what can be applied to his or her situations.The researcher is the primary instrument of data collection and analysis.Will rely on his or her own instincts and abilities throughout most of this research effort But will include paradoxes and acknowledges that there are no simple answersDoes not eliminate what cannot be discounted
MethodologyData Sources and AnalysisSources of information were collected from:Semi-structured interviewsLesson observations, lesson plans, field notesThemes were then coded using the complexity constructs
FindingsDistributionThis section shows us how Sams knowledge and practices of TPACK were shared and obtained in the process of knowledge co-construction between herself, her trainees and technology
Sams attitude towards technology
Attitude is the most important criterion for TPACK to develop well.Keep on the lookout for new tools and ways to improve her teaching. Relied mostly on the tutorials offered in the programmes that she wants to learn. And immediately sharing it with her colleaques and trainees for her to improve her knowledge and skills of that new programme or tools.It is also important for the ICT tools to be from an open source to avoid copyright or licensing issues. Despite her Geography background, Sams feels that with the right attitude, technology skills can be learned. Relationship between Sam and her trainees
Sam focuses on the three modalities when teaching her trainees; visual, auditory and kinesthetic (VAK)
Relationship between Sam and her traineesConsideration of pedagogical aspects is equally necessary when integrating technology in the classrooms. Cooperative learning strategies which are requirements of the 21st century skills ; teamwork, communication skills, problem solving, higher-order thinking skills were also integrated.
FindingsEnactionThis section shows us how Sams TPACK was adapted to suit her working environment and meet the requirements of her syllabus and trainees.
Technological constraintsAmong the top barrier known to prevent teachers from using ICT in their classroom is the lack of technical assistance.Not wanting to appear helpless, inept, or stupid, teachers without sufficient technical support, will not venture into the unknown territory.
Technology integrationWith more ICT use, ones TPACK will also increase (Yurdakul & Coklart, 2014).Learning ICT tools must also be for just-in-time and not just-in-case. Having one semester working with a subject-matter expert, Sam was able to get her trainees to apply the tools learned within a specific context of usage. Peer teaching also create awareness among her trainees that teachers perform better when they are being supported by their peers. Complimenting each others strength and weaknesses through peer co-teach should be made more common in schools.FindingsEmergenceThis section explains how new structures, activities, texts and thoughts develop out of a sufficient degree of complexity in a new environment
Pedagogical practicesHer exploration and experimentation with technological tools has resulted in an expanded repertoire of technological and pedagogical strategies.She uses the LMS in all her classes. Her learning websites has her tasks lined up, reading assignments, tutorials, forum, etc. Her students know what to do and what to expect in her classes. As such, early preparations were possible for them. Able to read trainees level of readiness and follow-up lessons were made accordingly.Classroom cultureNew classroom behaviors' emerged among her trainees after a few weeks.According to Sam, her students are used to checking for updates on her website.Her classes offer her trainees a glimpse of what technology can offer in the teaching and learning processes.She believes it made learning more meaningful through collaboration work, and collecting, and adapting resources, and the pride of publishing their work. Emergence of their understanding of ICTs integration within their subject matter will emerge through enough daily usage and interaction with the LMS. Discussion & implicationsAccess to technology is no longer an issue at the Teacher Training Institutes.If trainers are still not using them, then other barriers must be looked into.Common barriers include lack of time, confidence, resistance to change.According to Yelland (2001), traditional educational environments is no longer suitable for the 21st century workplaces.
Discussion & implicationsA meta-analysis carried out by Tamim, Rana, Bernard, Borokhovski, Abrami and Schmid (2011) found that computer use in the classroom has an overall positive effect on students achievement.This case study is meant to provide a clear description of how a dedicated and experienced trainer integrate ICT in her lessons without losing sight of her content and pedagogical demands. It is hoped to encourage and motivate other educators to start integrating or to do it more effectively. Discussion & implicationsHaving personal traits like willing to learn, and game for new teaching tools and programmes has helped her leverage her ICT skills. How trainees perspectives were then affected due to their frequent interaction, coordination and adaptation with the technology can be an interesting future study.
Several proposals emergedTeaching through the virtual learning environment makes learning more engaging and interesting. No longer at the receiving end, students can be an expert in just about any field through the advance of technology.Technology use in the teaching and learning must be cultivated early in the profession. Trainers owe that to their trainees in making sure they are relevant in their students eyes when they start teaching. As for trainers, by keeping track of ones TPACK development, one is in touch with ones teaching strength and weaknesses. Intervention c