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  • The impact of institutional arrangements for anti-corruption efforts on combating corruption

    MASTER IN ANTI-CORRUPTION STUDIES PROGRAMME

    2018

    Maureen Mwalabu

    A Case Study of Malawi

  • Supervisor: Professor John Hatchard

    This publication is an adaptation of the master’s thesis submitted to fulfil the requirements for the Master in Anti-Corruption Studies degree at the

    International Anti-Corruption Academy

  • I pledge on my honour that I have not plagiarized, used unauthorized

    materials, given and/or received illegitimate help on this assignment, and

    hold myself accountable to the academic standards binding upon students of

    the MACS programme.

    Signature: Maureen Mwalabu Date: 15 th

    October 2018

  • I

    Table of Contents

    Abstract ................................................................................................................. IV

    Acknowledgements ................................................................................................. V

    List of Figures/Tables ............................................................................................. VI

    List of Abbreviations.............................................................................................. VII

    1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1

    1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................. 1

    1.2 Context ...................................................................................................... 1

    1.3 Approaches and models for anti-corruption ............................................ 2

    1.4 The Anti-Corruption Bureau ...................................................................... 4

    1.5 Overview of corruption in Malawi ............................................................ 5

    1.6 Studies on interactions of anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) .................... 7

    1.7 Objectives ................................................................................................. 8

    1.8 Research question..................................................................................... 8

    1.9 Research hypotheses ................................................................................ 9

    1.9.1 The null Hypothesis H0 ....................................................................... 9

    1.9.2 Alternative hypotheses ....................................................................... 9

    1.10 Research motivation ............................................................................ 10

    1.11 Research variables ............................................................................... 11

    1.12 Methodology ........................................................................................ 11

    1.13 Structure of the thesis ......................................................................... 11

    1.14 Conclusion ........................................................................................... 12

    2 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ANTI-CORRUPTION EFFORTS .................. 13

    2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 13

    2.2 Defining Institutional arrangements for anti-corruption efforts ........... 13

    2.3 International requirements for Institutional arrangements .................. 14

    2.4 Malawi’s institutional arrangements for anti-corruption efforts ........... 16

    2.5 Institutional multiplicity ......................................................................... 18

    2.6 Corruption and institutional failure ....................................................... 22

    2.7 Interface among anti-corruption bodies ................................................. 24

    2.8 Coordination mechanisms and challenges for anti-corruption

    Institutions ....................................................................................................... 24

    2.9 Conclusion .............................................................................................. 25

  • II

    3 METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................. 26

    3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 26

    3.2 Research philosophy ............................................................................... 26

    3.3 Research setting ..................................................................................... 26

    3.4 Research design ...................................................................................... 27

    3.5 Sample and Sampling procedure ............................................................ 27

    3.6 Sources of data ....................................................................................... 28

    3.7 Data collection and tools ........................................................................ 29

    3.8 Data analysis ........................................................................................... 30

    3.9 Ethical considerations ............................................................................. 31

    3.10 Limitations of the study ...................................................................... 32

    3.11 Conclusion ........................................................................................... 33

    4 RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS ................................................................ 34

    4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 34

    4.2 Malawi’s web of accountability institutions ........................................... 34

    4.3 Interactions among the institutions ....................................................... 41

    4.4 Results of the hypotheses ...................................................................... 50

    4.5 Detailed findings on the hypotheses ..................................................... 53

    4.5.1 Productive overlap ............................................................................ 53

    4.5.2 Positive Competition ........................................................................ 57

    4.5.3 Costly Conflict .................................................................................. 59

    4.5.4 Wasteful Duplication of functions .................................................... 61

    4.6 Positive aspects of interactions .............................................................. 63

    4.7 Challenges in developing effective working relationships .................... 65

    4.8 How to improve interactions .................................................................. 71

    4.9 Interactions between the Anti-Corruption Bureau and other institutions

    74

    4.10 Conclusion ........................................................................................... 75

    5 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ................................................................................. 77

    5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 77

    5.2 Institutional arrangements for anti-corruption efforts .......................... 77

    5.3 Do institutional arrangements for anti-corruption efforts impact on

    combating corruption? ..................................................................................... 77

    5.4 How do institutional arrangements for anti-corruption efforts impact on

    combating corruption? ..................................................................................... 78

    5.5 Other key findings .................................................................................. 80

  • III

    5.6 Conclusion .............................................................................................. 81

    6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................ 82

    6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 82

    6.2 Key conclusions ...................................................................................... 82

    6.3 Other conclusions .................................................................................. 83

    6.4 Recommendations ................................................................................... 85

    6.5 Strengths of the research ....................................................................... 87

    6.6 Areas of possible research ..................................................................... 88

    6.7 Conclusion .............................................................................................. 88

    7 APPENDICES ....................................................................................................... i

    Appendix 1: List of Interviews conducted (Anti-Corruption Institutions

    Questionnaire) ..................................................................................................... i

    Appendix 2: Questionnaires ................................

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