workplace exposure assessment and field monitoring strategies

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WORKPLACE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FIELD MONITORING STRATEGIES. Eduardo J Salazar-Vega, MPH CPH Jan Koehn, MS CIH. BASIC ELEMENTS. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WORKPLACE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FIELD MONITORING STRATEGIES

WORKPLACE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FIELD MONITORING STRATEGIESEduardo J Salazar-Vega, MPH CPHJan Koehn, MS CIHIndustrial Hygiene (IH) is that science devoted to the anticipation, recognition, measurement, evaluation, and control of adverse stresses or agents which could cause sickness and impaired health among workers and the community. The basic goal of IH is to promote a safe and healthful work environment.BASIC ELEMENTSAnticipationRecognitionEvaluationControlINDUSTRIAL HYGIENEIntegrated with other systems for defining, prioritizing, and managing worker health protection.EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SYSTEMUsed to determine the needs and priority for health hazard controls, build exposure histories, and demonstrate regulatory compliance.ASSESSMENT RESULTSState-of-the-art approach has shifted from compliance monitoring which focuses on the maximum-risk employee to determine whether exposures are above or below established limits, to comprehensive exposure assessment, which emphasizes characterization of all exposures for all workers on all days.EXPOSURE CHARACTERIZATION

Basic CharacterizationExposure AssessmentFurther Information GatheringHealth Hazard ControlReassessmentDocumentationSTRATEGY OVERVIEW

Collect and organize informationUnderstand tasks being performed, materials used, process operations, and control measuresDevelop exposure conditionsBASIC CHARACTERIZATIONDefine Similar Exposure Groups (SEGs)Define exposure profilesDetermine acceptability of exposure profiles for each SEGEXPOSURE ASSESSMENTExposure MonitoringExposure ModelingBiological MonitoringToxicological Data GenerationEpidemiological Data GenerationFURTHER INFORMATION GATHERINGPrioritized based on findings from exposure assessmentDiagnostic monitoring can be employedHEALTH HAZARD CONTROLSUpdates on a timely basisComprehensive management-of-change processREASSESSMENTCommunicationRecommendationsRecord KeepingDOCUMENTATIONComprehensive StrategyCompliance StrategyLimited, Specific SurveyEXPOSURE ASSESSMENT GOALS

Hazardous agents in workplaceHealth effects associated with excessive exposuresOELs for each agentWorkforce organization and staffingSignificant sources of exposure; process separations and tasks and work procedures involvedControl measures

WALK-THROUGH SURVEYFacility tour and observationsPersonnel interviewsRecord reviewsRegulatory standardsLiteratureSOURCES OF INFORMATIONType of agentUse and propertiesRoutes of exposurePotential health effectsPertinent OELsENVIRONMENTAL AGENTSRaw MaterialsIntermediatesProductsByproductsAdditivesMaintenance/construction MaterialsLaboratory ChemicalsHazardous WastePhysical AgentsBiological AgentsCATEGORIES OF AGENTS

ProcessJobTask Environmental AgentSEGs DETERMINANTSTiered, cyclic processQualitative/QuantitativeLevel of uncertainty about specific level of exposureOELs reference (10%)ModelingEXPOSURE ASSESSMENTINITIAL ASSESSMENTExposure AssessmentQualitativeDataQuantitativeDaraMinor: if expected exposure is less than 1/10 OEL, if it is not likely to have an adverse effect to health, or if exposure does not create a regulatory issue.EXPOSURE SCENARIOSMajor: if expected exposure is equal or greater than 1/10 OEL, if it is likely to have an adverse effect to health, or if exposure creates a regulatory issue.EXPOSURE RATINGS

They can be defined based on::Monitoring dataDatos de monitoreoPersonal samplingReference measuresSurrogate dataData from exposure to other agentsData from exposure to other operation/processModelingBased on physical and chemical propertiesBased on process informationEXPOSURE RATINGS

CHARACTERIZING THE EXPOSURE

CHARACTERIZING THE EXPOSURE

Exposure and variability are low enough to create no more than the minimal risk associated with the exposure profile.They might not need immediate action, but monitoring is performed to verify them.ACCEPTABLE EXPOSURESThey are easier to determine.Exposure values are high enough, e.g. exceed the OELThere is evidence of adverse health effects, e.g. a worker passed out as a consequence of a hot environment (heat stress)If dermal contact is observed when the dermal route is an important route of exposure.UNACCEPTABLE EXPOSURESExposure cannot be classified as acceptable nor unacceptable. There is no conclusion.Few dataMany dermal exposures fall into this category.It can be solved in two different waysCollecting additional data.Categorizing the exposure as unacceptable and controlling it.UNCERTAIN EXPOSURES

Exposure profileJudge acceptable at 10%of OELResolve uncertaintiesPrioritization of SEGsFURTHER INFORMATION GATHERINGMeasurement of exposure concentrations during a given time period. Monitoring data are used to help resolve, refine, or confirm the exposure assessment.MONITORINGBaselineComplianceDiagnosticMONITORING OBJECTIONSInhalationIngestionSkin or Eye AbsorptionEXPOSURE PATHWAYSAreaPersonalAveraging TimesEXPOSURE MONITORINGOSHA PELsACGIH TLVsNIOSH RELsAIHA WEELs

OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITSFull-shift8-hour Time Weighted AverageShort-Term Exposure Limits (STELs)15-30 minute work tasksCeiling limitsMONITORING PERIODSWhoWhatWhereWhenWhyHow ManyHow LongHow to SampleSAMPLING STRATEGY DESIGNRegulatory ComplianceCorporate RequirementComprehensive DescriptionEstablish Exposure LevelsDiagnostic EvaluationRisk AssessmentWHY QUESTION?Everything?Workplace InventoryExposure AssessmentPriority Ranking SystemWHAT QUESTION?Process OperationsLoading/Unloading AreasBlending LocationsMaintenance/RepairsStorageWHERE QUESTION?Multiple ShiftsDifferent SeasonsVariable WeatherManufacturing Methodologiese.g. cyclic, batch, continuousWHEN QUESTION?OperationsMaintenanceLaboratorySupportTransportationWHO QUESTION?Full-shiftPartial PeriodShort-termGrab SamplesOthersHOW LONG QUESTION?Potential Elevated ExposuresRepresentativeWorst-caseHOW MANY QUESTION?Questions?SCENARIOS ANDAPPLICATIONS

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