1-1 organizational behavior islt-644 presenter: erlan bakiev, ph.d. paper summaries

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1-1 Organizational Behavior ISLT-644 Presenter: Erlan Bakiev, Ph.D. Paper summaries

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Page 1: 1-1 Organizational Behavior ISLT-644 Presenter: Erlan Bakiev, Ph.D. Paper summaries

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Organizational BehaviorISLT-644

Presenter: Erlan Bakiev, Ph.D.

Paper summaries

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An Empirical Assessment of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness

By Angle, H. L. and Perry, J. L. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26 (1), (1981), 1-14.

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This study aims to build a relationship between organizational commitment of lower-level employees with organizational effectiveness in organizations offering bus services.

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Organizational commitment as defined by Porter et al. (1974) has three major components:

(1)a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's goals,

(2)a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization, and

(3)a definite desire to maintain organizational membership

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Re- search conducted within this framework has indicated that commitment is not only a predictor of employee retention, but may also be a predictor of employee effort and performance.

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Organizational effectiveness is multidimensional, and there is also reason to believe that the determinants of organizational effectiveness vary (Angle and Perry, 2006).

Angle and Perry (2006) claim that just organizational structure is not enough to ensure organizational effectiveness; there must be crucial requirements such as, employees’ support on organizational goals

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Not only must the organization induce members to join and remain (i.e., participate), but it must also motivate two kinds of production: dependable role behavior, as prescribed by the organization, and spontaneous and innovative behaviors which go beyond explicit behavioral prescriptions (Angle and Perry, 2006, p. 2)

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This study hypothesize that organizations whose members were strongly committed would have both high participation and high production.

And organizations with high level of participation and production were expected to show relatively low levels of absenteeism, tardiness, and voluntary turnover, and high levels of operating efficiency.

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Population: 24 organizations, which operated fixed-route bus services in western United States,

Level of Analysis (individual): The majority (%91)of the respondents were bus drivers; however, at a few of the participating organizations, mechanics and/or clerical personnel were included in the drivers' bargaining unit and so were sampled along with the drivers.

Sample size 1244 (employee) and 96 (transit managers)

Methodology

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Employee commitment was measured by the 15-item Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)(Porter et al., 1974),

This study indicates Cronbach's alpha of.90.Two subscales were also created, based on the results

of a factor analysis: value commitment (alpha=.89) and commitment to stay (alpha=.72), which appear to differentiate between the respondents' commitment to support the goals of the organization and their commitment to retain their organizational membership

Study Measures

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Employee turnover (separation rate) was measured by compilation of statistics on voluntary termination during the preceding fiscal year.

A second turnover measure was obtained by self- report of employees' intent to quit.

Employee tardiness was computed as the ratio of recorded tardiness incidents to the mean number of employees during the preceding fiscal year (only 14 out of 24)

Absenteeism was obtained by self-report

Study Measures

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Operating expense was another measure of effectiveness (Two performance indicators were selected for this study:

1. operating expense per revenue vehicle-hour, computed by dividing total operating expenses for the preceding fiscal year by the total number of operating hours for the revenue vehicles, and

2. operating expense per employee, using the total number of employees as the measure of input.

Organizational adaptability was measured by self-report, using a modified version of Mott's (1972) questionnaire.

Study Measures

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Commitment was positively correlated with age (r=.17, p <.001), but negatively related to educational level (p<.0001).

Explanation: increasing age and decreasing levels of education tend to reduce the feasibility of obtaining desirable alternative education and therefore tend to restrict the individual to the present organization.

Females were more strongly committed to their organizations than males (p<.001).

Results

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Organizational commitment was significantly related to organizational adaptability, based on employee questionnaire data, but was not significantly related based on manager questionnaires (small number of respondents)

Turnover (separation rate and intent to quit) was significantly related to organizational commitment

However, neither absenteeism nor the two operating-expense ratios showed a statistically significant association with commitment.

Tardiness rate was negatively correlated with value commitment, as had been the case with organizational commitment, but was not significantly correlated with commitment to stay

Results

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Although employee-perceived organizational adaptability was associated with commitment, manager-perceived adaptability was not.

The relationship between tardiness and commitment was significant; however, employee tardiness rate was not significantly associated with organizational operating costs.

Conclusion

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Relationship of Core Self-Evaluations Traits-Self-Esteem, Generalized Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Emotional Stability-With Job Satisfaction and Job

Performance: A Meta-Analysis. By Judge, T. A. and Bono, J. E. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (1), (2001), pp. 80-92.

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This article aims to build relationship between self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability (low neuroticism) with job satisfaction and job performance by utilizing meta-analysis.

The purpose of the present study is to provide a quantitative review of the literature that examines the relationship of the four core self-evaluation traits with job satisfaction and job performance.

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The Core self-evaluations were assessed by traits that met three criteria: (a) evaluation-focus (the degree to which a trait involves evaluation, as opposed to description); (b) fundamentality (personality theory, fundamental or source traits underlie surface traits); and (c) breadth or scope

The purpose of the present study is to provide a quantitative review of the literature that examines the relationship of the four core self-evaluation traits with job satisfaction and job performance.

Core Self-Evaluation Traits

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1. they self-esteem is considered to be the most fundamental manifestation of core self-evaluations as it represents the overall value that one places on oneself as a person.

2. Generalized self-efficacy which was viewed as an indicator of positive core evaluations.

3. Internal locus of control is considered a manifestation of core evaluations because internals believe they can control a broad array of factors in their lives.

4. emotional stability (low neuroticism), reflecting the tendency to be confident, secure, and steady, was argued to be indicative of core self-evaluations because it is a broad trait that manifests one's view of one's emotional stability

Four traits that met the criteria of Core Self-Evaluation Traits

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H-la: Self-esteem is positively related to job satisfaction.

H-lb: Generalized self-efficacy is positively related to job satisfaction.

H-lc: Internal locus of control is positively related to job satisfaction.

H-ld: Emotional stability is positively related to job satisfaction.

Hypotheses

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H-2a: Self-esteem is positively related to job performance.

H-2b: Generalized self-efficacy is positively related to job performance.

H-2c: Internal locus of control is positively related to job performance.

H-2d: Emotional stability is positively related to job performance.

Hypotheses

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In conducting the meta-analysis, the procedures of Hunter and Schmidt (1990) were followed . 1. Authors calculated a sample-sized weighted mean correlation for each of the four traits with the relevant criterion (job satisfaction or job performance). 2. The correlations were individually corrected for measurement error in both the predictor and the criterion. 3. A disattenuated correlation was estimated for each

of the traits with both criteria.

Method

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The Uncorrected mean correlations for the four traits ranged from average r = .20 for emotional stability to average

r = .38 for generalized self-efficacy. Corrected correlations were, from lowest to highest,

as follows: emotional stability, p = .24; self-esteem, p — .24; internal locus of control, p = .32; generalized self-efficacy, p = .45.

95% of confidence intervals around the corrected correlations were relatively narrow and excluded zero in all cases.

Overall, these results support H-la-H-lb—there is a positive relationship be- tween each of the four traits and job satisfaction.

Results

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The uncorrected mean correlations between the traits and job performance range from average r = .14 for internal locus of control to average r = .19 for generalized self-efficacy.

Corrected correlations were as follows: emotional stability, p = .19; internal locus of control, p = .22; generalized self-efficacy, p = .23; self-esteem, p = .26.

95% of confidence intervals were relatively narrow and excluded zero for all traits.

In general, these findings lend support to our hypotheses regarding the relationship between each of the traits and job performance (H-2a-H-2d).

Results

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The results of this study indicate that serf- esteem, locus of control, neuroticism, and generalized self-efficacy are significant predictors of both job satisfaction and job performance.

However, there is much to be known about the exact nature of the traits (whether or not they are indicators of the broader core self-evaluations construct) and the processes by which they affect these outcomes.

Conclusion

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Demografik Degişkenlerin Is Tatminine Etkileri: Izmir’deki Bes ve Dört Yıldızlı Otellere Yonelik Bir

Uygulama. By Toker, B.

Dogus Universitesi Dergisi, 8 (1), (2011), pp. 92-107.

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The purpose of this study is to measure personnel's job satisfaction through Job Descriptive Index in the hospitality firms and to determine the effects of age, sex, marital status, and education.

Tourism sector is a service oriented and that’s why workers job satisfaction is vital in demining quality of service

Despite job satisfaction is an individual phenomenon; the organization aspect is also shouldn’t be omitted

Purpose of the study

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H1: Elderly workers’ job satisfaction is different than those of young workers.

H2: There is difference on job satisfaction between males and females.

H3: There is difference on job satisfaction between married and singles.

There is difference on the level of job satisfaction based on workers’ educational level.

There is difference on the level of job satisfaction based on workers’ tourism related educational level.

Hypotheses

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Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory Two Factor TheoryEquity Theory Job Characteristics ModelCornell Model

Theoretical Framework

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T-test

Method

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According to results of Anova test the level of job satisfaction is higher for elderly workers than youngers (F=2,856; p=0,037). Sonuçta, H1 was rejected.

Based on T testi results, ther is no difference on job satisfaction among males and females. Consequently, H2 failed to reject

There was a significant relationship and difference among high schol graduates and university graduates. H3 was rejected

H5 (tourism education) was rejected.

Results