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  • The Potential Role of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Solving the Climate, Environmental and Energy Challenges.

    Alan C. Lloyd, Ph.D.

    President, International Council on Clean Transportation

    Joint 12th IPHE Implementation and Liaison (ILC)

    & Steering Committee (SC) Meeting

    December 2, 2009

  • Slide 2

    International Council on Clean Transportation Goal of the ICCT is to dramatically reduce

    conventional pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from all transportation sources in order to improve air quality and human health, and mitigate climate change.

    Promotes best practices and comprehensive solutions to:

    Improve vehicle emissions and efficiency Increase fuel quality and sustainability of

    alternative fuels

    Reduce pollution from the in-use fleet, and Curtail emissions from international goods

    movement.

    The Council is made up of leading regulators and experts from around the world."

    www.theicct.org

  • Outline Introduction and background Changing global landscape Market deployment opportunities Fuel cell transportation applications Stationary energy generation opportunities Future needs and prognosis

    Slide 3

  • Motivation for Deploying Zero to Near Zero Emission Technologies

    Conventional air and other Pollution

    Potential dramatic GHG reduction

    Energy security/independence issues

  • Augmenting CO2: Control to Mitigate Climate Change

    In addition to CO2 reduction, need more fast action policies (Molina et al. 2009)

    Reduction of HFCS with high GWP Reduction of precursor gases to ozone formation Reduction of black carbon (B.C. and/or soot) Strong link between conventional pollutants and

    GHG

    Slide 5

  • Share of Global Black Carbon Emissions from all Sources in 2000

    Source: Bond, T.. (2009) Black carbon: Emission sources and prioritization. Presentation at the 2009 International Workshop on Black Carbon. 5-6 Jan 2009. London, UK.

  • Global Warming Potential (GWP) Estimated from IPCC 2007

    Source: ICCT (2009) A Policy-relevant Summary of Black Carbon Climate Science and Appropriate Emission Control Strategies. Available online at http://www.theicct.org

    Note: The methodology used for black carbon was also used for organic carbon and sulfur oxides. Values for black carbon, organic carbon and sulfur oxides were not published by the IPCC and are not official estimates.

    GWP20 GWP100 GWP500

    Black carbon 1600 460 140

    Methane 72 25 7.6

    Nitrous oxide 289 298 153

    Sulfur oxides -140 -40 -12

    Organic carbon -240 -69 -21

    Carbon dioxide 1 1 1

  • Global Demand for Cars COUNTRY POPULATION (Millions) CARS per 1000 people

    Italy 58.2 595

    Germany 82.7 565

    Canada 32.9 561

    Australia 20.6 507

    France 60.9 496

    Sweden 9.1 462

    USA 303.9 461

    UK 60.0 457

    Japan 128.3 441

    Norway 4.7 439

    S. Korea 48.1 240

    India 1,135.6 8

    Kenya / Philippines 36.0 / 85.9 9

    China 1,331.4 18

    Slide 8

  • Expected Economic Growth

    Slide 9

    Source: Economist 2009

    Country GDP Growth % 2010 China 8.6 India 6.3

    Vietnam 6.0 France 0.9

    Germany 0.5 UK 0.6

    Canada 2.0 USA 2.4 Brazil 3.8

  • Market Deployment Opportunities

    Global environment and climate challenges require actions to increase efficiency and decarbonize fuels

    Magnitude of challenge will require sustained effort to dramatically reduce pollution and GHG

    Hydrogen in transportation and stationary applications can play a role how significant depends on policies and actions in the next few years

    Slide 10

  • Source: Honda Fuel Cell Vehicle Activities presentation by Stephen Ellis, Manager FCV Marketing

    Slide 11

  • Transportation Applications Most H2 applications will use fuel cell

    vehicles

    H2 ICE also being demonstrated by BMW and Mazda

    H2 also being used in heavy duty engines in blends with CNG

    Slide 12

  • Source: Overview of Mazda Hydrogen Vehicles, DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

    Slide 13

  • Slide 14

    Source: Overview of Mazda Hydrogen Vehicles, DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

  • Slide 15

    Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal, Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program

  • Well-to-Wheels Comparison of Future (2035) Propulsion Systems

    Need Lower Carbon Fuels

    Need Lower Carbon Electricity

    MIT On the Road in 2035 16

  • Challenges: Liquid Fuel Advantage

    Energy density per volume

    Energy density per weight

    kWh/liter vs gasoline KWh/kg vs gasoline Gasoline 9.7 13.2 Diesel fuel 10.7 110% 12.7 96% Ethanol 6.4 66% 7.9 60% Hydrogen at 10,000 psi 1.3 13% 39 295% Liquid hydrogen 2.6 27% 39 295% NiMH battery 0.1-0.3 2.1% 0.1 0.8% Lithium-ion battery (present time) 0.2 2.1% 0.14 1.1% Lithium-ion battery (future) 0.28 ? 2.1%

    ENERGY FUTURE: Think Efficiency

    Source: American Physical Society, Sept. 2008, Chapter 2, Table 1

    17

  • Future Battery Development

  • Source: On the Road to Sustainable Mobility Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles by Michael Schweizer, Product Management Advanced Product Planning Mercedes- Benz USA

    Slide 19

  • Challenges: Development Potential barriers to new propulsion systems

    Higher vehicle first cost Learning & economies of scale not realized

    Fueling Storage, infrastructure, range issues May be higher or lower (electricity) cost

    Safety, reliability, durability concerns Customer lack of awareness & risk aversion Manufacturers risk aversion Sunk capital costs in current technology

    Courtesy AC Transit

    Daimler Fuel Cell Vehicle

  • Slide 21

    Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal, Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program

  • Challenges: Commercialization Production build-up issues in addition to potential

    development barriers: Development lead times and availability across

    product platforms Capital investment required Supply of critical systems/components Capacity utilization

    Competition from continuing improvements from conventional technologies

  • Source: GM HTAC Review Automotive Fuel Cells by Keith Cole, Director Advanced Technology Vehicle Strategy & Legislative Affairs

    Slide 23

  • Slide 24

    Source: On the Road to Sustainable Mobility Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles by Michael Schweizer, Product Management Advanced Product Planning Mercedes- Benz USA

  • Stationary Source Applications Rifkin Third Industrial Revolution Concept;

    Buildings as renewable energy sources Smart grid Hydrogen as storage, potential link with transportation

    Portable Power Small consumer electronics (mobile phones, laptops) Micro fuel cells

    Large fuel cells FC energy deployment UTC applications

    Fork lifts Telecom back-up power

    Slide 25

  • Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. Chico, California, USA

    Natural or bio-gas is fed to the Fuel Cell , where hydrogen gas is extracted and combined with oxygen from the air to produce electricity, heat, and water. Heat is then recovered and used to heat water for brewing and the electricity is used throughout the brewery. Fuel Cells are efficient, quiet, and produce extremely low emissions.

    Completed one of the largest fuel cell installation in the United States - installing four 250-kilowatt co-generation fuel cell power units to supply electric power and heat to the brewery.

    Slide 26

  • Solutions

    Telecom Base Transceiver Stations UPS Highway/Railway Signaling and Communications Surveillance, Sensing, Pumping, SCADA

    Extended Run Backup Power

    Source: IdaTech 2009

  • ElectraGen H2-I Images

    Source: IdaTech 2009

  • Hydrogen Energy California (HECA) Project: Hydrogen-fuelled power plant with carbon capture and sequestration

    combined enhanced oil recovery

    Location: Kern County, California, USA

    Partners:

    Type: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and sequestration combined with enhanced oil recovery

    Output: 390 gross MW

    Feedstock: Petroleum coke and coal as needed

    CO2 capture: Over 2 million tons per year

    Projected construction start: 2011

    Projected target completion: 2015

    Status: Applied for California Energy Commission permit in 2009

    Slide 29

    Source: http://www.hydrogenenergy.com/content_329_kern_county_california

  • Source: (Revised) Application for Certification for Hydrogen Energy California Kern County, California by URS Hydrogen Energy International, Submitted to California Energy Commission

    Slide 30

  • Top Emitters of GHGs in California, 2008 (In Metric Tons)

    1. Chevron Refinery, Richmond: 4,792,052 2. Shell Oil Refinery, Martinez: 4,570,475 3. BP Refinery, Carson: 4,504,286 4. Chevron Refinery, El Segundo: 3,603, 446 5. Dynegy Power Plant, Moss Landing: 2,962,149 6. Exxon Refinery, Torrance: 2,852,374 7. Valero Refinery, Benicia: 2,796,057 8. Tesoro Refinery, Martinez: 2,703,145 9. Southern California Edison Mountain View Power Plant, Redlands:

    2,697,142

    10. La Paloma Power Plant, McKittrick: 2,544,398

    Slide 31

    Source: Califor

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