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  • i

    Assessment of Decentralized Service Delivery Arrangements and

    Institutional Performance: the Case of Pakistan Local Government

    Reforms

    By

    SEEMAB ARA FAROOQI

    A Thesis Submitted to the School of Management in Fulfilment of the Requirement for

    the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Stirling Management School

    University of Stirling

    April 2013

    http://www.stir.ac.uk/

  • ii

    DECLARATION

    This thesis is submitted in the fulfilment of the degree of Philosophy (Management) at

    the University of Stirling, United Kingdom. I declare that this thesis is based on my

    original work except for the quotations and citations which I have duly acknowledged. I

    also declare that this thesis has not been previously or concurrently submitted, either in

    whole or part, for any other qualification at the University of Stirling or other

    institution. I am responsible for any errors and omissions present in the thesis.

    Signed

    Seemab Ara Farooqi

    April 2013

  • iii

    Acknowledgements

    Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah, the Most Compassionate and the Most Merciful, for

    giving me strength and blessings to reach the finishing line of this Doctoral study. On

    this journey, there were many individuals who supported and helped me throughout this

    process. I may not be able to mention all of them here.

    I wish to express my warmest appreciation to the late Professor Rob Ball, University of

    Stirling, for the invaluable guidance and support he has given me during the course of

    this PhD. He was a great supervisor, a genuine and kind hearted man. I started my

    journey with him and throughout this process, his constant words of encouragement

    were a great source of inspiration and self-confidence. His belief in me kept me

    working hard. It was a great honour to work with him. I wish to express my gratitude to

    my Supervisor, Dr. Tom Forbes, for his invaluable advice, support and encouragement

    to give this thesis its final shape. He made this process a stimulating and rewarding

    experience. I would also like to thank Striling Management School for their support.

    I would also like to express my gratitude to the local authorities, the managers of

    service delivery organizations, and NGO representatives, who gave their valuable time

    and shared their experiences for my research. Special thanks go to the Managing

    Directors of WASA, Dr. Arshad and Zahid Aziz, for their cooperation, as well as to

    Major Wasiq, for his efforts to organize my meetings with key individuals. I would

    also like to thank the University of the Punjab, in particular, the Institute of

    Administrative Sciences and the Vice Chancellor for granting me a scholarship to

    pursue this research.

    Lastly, I am particularly grateful to my husband, Qamar, for his love and sacrifice, and

    to my children Nadir, Nayab and wee Larraib, for their understanding and support. I

    could not have done this thesis without them around. Thanks to my mother who always

    believed in me and prayed for my success and happy life. My sincerest thanks go to my

    friends for their laughs and support. Without you all this thesis would not have been

    possible. You will always be in my heart and I will always pray that Allah Almighty

    may reward you for your kindness.

  • iv

    Abstract

    This thesis seeks to understand the relationship between decentralized service delivery

    arrangements and the institutional performance of local government in Pakistan. This is

    achieved by examining the structures and processes associated with local governance,

    and situating public sector organizations in their wider context.

    The key aim of this thesis was to empirically evaluate the relationship between

    decentralization and institutional performance. The thesis contends that problem of

    service delivery can only be understood by examining the whole system of service

    delivery. Although, the focus of the research was on public sector management,

    however, it is argued that public sector organizations cannot be separated from their

    political environment. To address this concern, the thesis developed a conceptual

    framework based on three theoretical perspectives; the economic, political and New

    Public Management. Each perspective focused on a different level of analysis and

    identified a different way of explaining the phenomenon of decentralization and its

    impact on institutional performance.

    The study utilised a comprehensive research methodology to study the link between

    decentralization and performance through a multiple case study approach. The main

    empirical elements of the research were a community survey of two communities in two

    local authorities, an organizational survey of two sectors - education and water and

    sanitation. Detailed semi-structured interviews were undertaken with multiple

    stakeholders at various levels of service delivery. The research findings indicate that

    there is a relationship between decentralization and institutional performance; however

    the contextual environment plays a significant role in affecting the performance of

  • v

    service provision. The empirical findings indicate that decentralization reforms in

    developing countries remain focused on structural decentralization and need strong

    political and bureaucratic commitment for real autonomy to be transferred down the

    hierarchy. One implication of this research is that it provided a comprehensive

    assessment of the decentralized service delivery model in Pakistan and identified the

    nature of reforms developing countries are taking up and the constraints on public sector

    organizations, and hence contributed to the emerging literature on public management

    reforms in developing countries (McCourt and Martin 2001; McCourt 2008).

  • vi

    LIST OF ACRONYMS

    AAS Adopt A school System

    ADB Asian Development Bank

    ASB Anjuman Samajhi Bahbood

    CARE Cooperation for Advancement, Rehabilitation and Education

    (TRUST)

    CCB Citizen Community Board

    CDG City District Government

    CDGF City District Government Faisalabad

    CDGL City District Government Lahore

    CPP Changa Pani Program (Partnership model in WSS)

    DEO District Education Officer

    DDEO Deputy District Education Officer

    DFID Department for International Development

    DN District Nazim Head of the Local Government

    DMD Deputy Managing Director

    DMO District Monitoring Officer

    ED Education Department

    EDO Executive District Officer

    FDA Faisalabad Development Authority

    HUD & PHED Housing, Urban Development and Public Health Engineering

    Department

    LG Local Government

    LGO Local Government Ordinance

    LDA Lahore Development Authority

    IOL Institute Of Learning

    IPFD Infrastructure Project Development Facility

    ITA Idare-Taleem-O-Agahi

    MD Managing Director

    MOWP Ministry of Water and Power

  • vii

    NCHD National Commission for Human Development

    NGO Non-Governmental Organization

    NRW Non-Revenue Water

    NFC National Finance Commission

    O&M Operation and Maintenance

    PCP Pakistan Centre for Philanthropy

    PEF Punjab Education Foundation

    PFC Provincial Finance Commission

    P&D Planning and Development

    SC School Council

    SIP School Improvement Program

    SPU Strategic Policy unit

    TMA Tehsil/Town Municipal administration

    TMO Tehsil Municipal Officer

    UC Union Council

    USAID United States Agency for International Development

    UIPT Urban Immovable Property Tax

    WSS Water and Sanitation Sector

    WASA Water and Sanitation Agency

    WASCO Water and Sanitation Company

  • viii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PART 1 (CHAPTER 1) 2

    CHAPTER 1 2

    1.1 INTRODUCTION 2

    1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 4

    1.3 THE STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS 5

    1.4 BACK GROUND TO THE THESIS: NATIONAL CONTEXT 8

    1.4.1 Background of Devolution 8

    1.4.2 Structure of Local Government 10

    1.1.1 The responsibilities assigned to Urban/Rural Councils Under the Local

    Government Ordinance 1979 and BDO, 1959 11

    1.1.2 Impact of Devolution on Local Governance 13

    1.1.3 Decentralized Service Delivery Framework under the Devolution Plan

    2000 14

    1.4.3 Political Reforms 15

    1.4.4 Administrative Reforms 18

    1.4.5 Fiscal Reforms 19

    1.5 Conclusion 24

    PART 2 (CHAPTER 2, 3 & 4) 27

    CHAPTER 2 31

    2.1 INTRODUCTION 31

    2.2 DEFINING POLITICAL/DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALIZATION 32

    2.3 THEORETICAL CASE FOR DEMOCRATIC LOCAL GOVERNMENT 32

    2.4 PARTICIPATION, ACCOUNTABILITY AND RESPONSIVENESS 34

    2.4.1 Responsiveness 39

    2.4.2 Accountability 40

  • ix

    2.5 REVIEWING EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE 41

    2.5.1 Politics of Decentralization Reforms 41

    2.5.2 Participation, Accountability and Performance 43

    2.5.3 African Case Studies 50

    2.5.4 Asian Case Studies 55

    2.5.5 Latin American Case Studies 58

    2.5.6 Conclusion 59

    2.6 CONCLUSION 61

    CHAPTER 3 63

    3.1 INTRODUCTION 64

    3.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 64

    3.3 ASS

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