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    INVESTIGATING INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF WHITE VOLTA BASIN, GHANA JOSEPH BOATENG AGYENIM

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    VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT

    Investigating Institutional Arrangements for Integrated Water Resource Management in Developing Countries: The Case of

    White Volta Basin, Ghana

    ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT

    ter verkrijging van de graad Doctor aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, op gezag van de rector magnificus

    prof.dr. L.M. Bouter, in het openbaar te verdedigen

    ten overstaan van de promotiecommissie van de faculteit der Aard- en Levenswetenschappen

    op donderdag 3 februari 2011 om 13.45 uur in de aula van de universiteit,

    De Boelelaan 1105

    door

    Joseph Boateng Agyenim geboren te Mim-Ahafo, Ghana

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    promotoren: prof.dr. J. Gupta prof.dr. L.A. Dei

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    “If the misery of our poor be caused not by the laws of nature, but by our institutions, great is our sin”- Charles Darwin

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    Investigating Institutional Arrangements for Integrated Water Resource Management in Developing Countries: The Case of

    White Volta Basin, Ghana List of Tables 10� List of figures 11� List of boxes 11 Executive Summary 12 1. Introduction 33�

    1.1 Background 33� 1.2 Problem Definition 35� 1.3 Problem Definition for Ghana 39� 1.4 Research Questions 40� 1.5 Importance of the Research 41� 1.6 Methodology 41�

    1.6.1 The Scope of the Study 41� 1.6.2 Theoretical Framework 41� 1.6.3 Literature 44� 1.6.4 The Case Study Methodology 44�

    1.6.4.1 Choice of Case Study 44� 1.6.4.2 Selection of the Study Organisations/agencies 45� 1.6.4.3 Sources of Data 47� 1.6.4.4 Methods of Data Collection 47�

    1.6.5 Institutional Analysis 48� 1.6.6 Limitations of the Study 48�

    1.7 Structure of the Thesis 48 2. Integrated Water Resource Management: Understanding the Concept 50�

    2.1 Introduction 50� 2.2 Evolution of the Integrated Water Resources Management Concept 50� 2.3 What is Integrated Water Resources Management? 53�

    2.3.1 Related Concepts 53� 2.3.2 IWRM Defined 54�

    2.4 Different Views on IWRM 57� 2.5 The Elements of IWRM 58� 2.6 The Principles of IWRM 59�

    2.6.1 Comprehensive View Point 60� 2.6.2 Recognition of Water as an Economic Good 61� 2.6.3 Stakeholder Participation 62� 2.6.4 The Gender Sensitivity Principle 63�

    2.7 Approaches to IWRM 64� 2.8 The Process of IWRM 65�

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    2.9 Strengths and Weaknesses of IWRM 67� 2.10 Summary and Inferences 70

    3. IWRM Experiences in Developed and Developing Countries 72�

    3.1 Introduction 72� 3.2 Interpretation of IWRM 72� 3.3 The Implementation of IWRM 75�

    3.3.1 Experiences from Developed Countries 75� 3.3.2 Experiences from Developing Countries 78� 3.3.3 Types of Implementation Processes 83�

    3.4 Factors Responsible for Varying Complexities/Challenges in Different Countries 84� 3.5 Inferences 87

    4. The Theory of Institutions and Water Governance 88�

    4.1 Introduction 88� 4.2 What are Institutions? 88�

    4.2.1 Institutions Defined 88� 4.2.2 Nature and Characteristics of Institutions 90� 4.2.3 Institutions and Organisations 91� 4.2.4 How Institutions Shape Human Behaviour 93�

    4.3 Role of Institutions 95� 4.4 Institutional Arrangements 96� 4.5 Institutional Changes 97� 4.6 Factors that Determine the Performance of Institutions 100� 4.7 Water Law, Water Policy and Administration 101�

    4.7.1 Separation of Functions 102� 4.7.2 Monitoring and Enforcement 103� 4.7.3 Water Rights 103� 4.7.4 Administering Water Rights 104�

    4.8 The Problems of Fit, Interplay, and Scale 105� 4.9 Water Governance 106� 4.10 Attributes of ‘Good’ Water Governance 109� 4.11 Inferences 110

    5. Ghana Water Management at the National Level 111� 5.1 Introduction 111� 5.2 Water Situation in Ghana 111� 5.3 International Developments 113� 5.4 Historical Perspective of Ghana Water Laws and Policies 116�

    5.4.1 Pre-colonial Customary Law Period (till 1874) 116� 5.4.2 Colonial Water Regime (1874 – 1957) 117� 5.4.3 Post-Colonial Era (Pre-IWRM) Water Policy (1957-1998) 118� 5.4.4 The Modern Era (1998-2010) 120�

    5.4.4.1 Period of Structural Changes 120� 5.4.4.2 The Water Resources Commission 121�

    5.4.5 Legislative Framework for Water Governance 125� 5.4.6 National Water Policy 126�

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    5.5 The Transition 128� 5.5.1 The IWRM Concept in Water Resources Management in Ghana 130� 5.5.2 IWRM Implementation Processes 130� 5.5.3 Collaboration of WRC with other Organisations 133�

    5.6 Inferences 134 6. Water Management at the White Volta Basin 136�

    6.1 Introduction 136� 6.2 The White Volta Basin: Facts 136� 6.3 Water Management Institutions and Organisations/Actors 138�

    6.3.1 Government Organisations/Actors 138� 6.3.1.1 Ghana’s Local Governance System 138� 6.3.1.2 District Assemblies 139� 6.3.1.3 Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) 141� 6.3.1.4 Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA) 142� 6.3.1.6 Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) 143� 6.3.1.7 Ministry of Fisheries 144� 6.3.1.8 Hydrology Department and Meteorological Service 144� 6.3.1.9 Volta River Authority 144� 6.3.1.10 Research bodies 145�

    6.3.2 Other Bodies (Commissions) 145� 6.3.2.1 Water Resources Commission 145� 6.3.2.2 Minerals Commission 147� 6.3.2.3 Lands Commission 147� 6.3.2.4 Forestry Commission 147�

    6.3.3 Traditional Institutions 148� 6.3.4 Community Level Organisations 149� 6.3.5 Donor Funded (International) Programmes/Projects in the Basin 150�

    6.4 Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) at the Basin 151� 6.5 Private Sector 153�

    6.5.1 Technical Assistance Consultancies 153� 6.5.2 Ghana Water Company Ltd. 153� 6.5.3 Irrigation Company of the Upper East Region (ICOUR) 155�

    6.6 Organisational Linkages and Interactions in the Basin 155� 6.6.1 Levels of Coordination 155� 6.6.2 Types of Coordination 156� 6.6.3 Coordination Mechanisms for Water Resources Management 157� 6.6.4 Existing Coordination Mechanisms 158�

    6.6.4.1 Public Sector Organisations 158� 6.6.4.2 NGOs and the Private Sector 159� 6.6.4.3 Community Based Organisations 159�

    6.7 Implications for Water Resource Management 160� 6.8 Implications for the White Volta Basin Office 161� 6.9 IWRM Processes at the Basin 163� 6.10 Inferences 164

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    7. IWRM and Basic Needs: Potable Water Supply in the White Volta Basin 165� 7.1 Introduction 165� 7.2 Reforms for IWRM Implementation in Potable Water Delivery 165�

    7.2.1 Reforms in Rural Water Supply 165� 7.2.2 Reforms in Urban Water Supply 167� 7.2.3 The Environmental Sector 168�

    7.3 Institutional Arrangements for Rural/Community Water Delivery 168� 7.3.1 Organisational Structure and Linkages for Community Water Delivery 168� 7.3.2 Management Processes and Principles 171�

    7.3.2.1 Single Point Systems 171� 7.3.2.2 Small Town Pipe System 172�

    7.3.3 Borehole/Well Provision 175� 7.3.4 Regulation and Controls 177� 7.3.5 Pricing and Financing 177�

    7.4 Institutional Arrangement for Urban Water Delivery 178� 7.4.1 Organisational Structure and Linkages 178� 7.4.2 Operations/Coverage and Beneficiaries 179� 7.4.3 Public-Private Partnership 182� 7.4.4 Regulatory Structures and Pricing of Urban Potable Water 183�

    7.5 Inferences 184 8. IWRM and Livelihoods at the White Volta Basin 186�

    8.1 Introduction 186� 8.2 Socioeconomic Activities at the White Volta Basin 186�

    8.2.1 Agriculture 186� 8.2.1.1 Land Tenure System 188� 8.2.1.2� Fishing 188� 8.2.2 Commerce 188� 8.2.3 Small and Medium Scale Industries 188�

    8.3 Institutional Arrangement for Irrigated Agriculture 188� 8.3.1 Policies and Legislation 189� 8.3.2 Water Management in Irrigated Agriculture 190� 8.3.3 Large Scale Irrigation Schemes 191�

    8.3.3.1 Organisational Structure and Operations of ICOUR 191� 8.3.3.2 Accessibility to Water for Agricultural Production 193� 8.3.3.3 Farmer Cooperatives 194�

    8.3.4 Small Dams and Wells 195� 8.3.5 Irrigation along the White Volta Using Water Pumps 197� 8.3.6 Collective Interest and Group Action 199�

    8.3.6.1 The Case of Winkogo Dam Area 199� 8.3.6.2 The Case of Binduri Dam Area 201�

    8.4 Water Management for Fish Production 203� 8.4.1 Institutional Arrangements for Fish Management 203� 8.4.2 Strategies for Managing Water for Fish Production 204� 8.4.3 Fishing and Traditional Authorities 206�

    8.5 Industrial Water Use 207�

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    8.6 Inferences 208 9. Interactions among Water Institutions and Agencies for Transboundary Management 210�

    9.1 Introduction 210� 9.2 General Characteristics of the Basin 210� 9.3 International Level Legal and Organisational Changes and Relationships 211�

    9.3.1 Ghana Burkina Faso Joint-Technical Committee on Integrated Water Resources Management 212� 9.3.2 The GEF Volta Project 214� 9.3.3 The IUCN and GWP ‘Improving Water Governance in the Volta River Basin’ (PAGEV) 214� 9.3.4 The GLOWA-Volta Project 216� 9

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