Barriers to Effective Use of Technology

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  • 7/26/2019 Barriers to Effective Use of Technology

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    Asian Transactions on Science & Technology (ATST ISSN: 2221-4283) Volume 01 Issue 05

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    Barriers to the Effective Use of Technology in Education: Case Study of UAE

    University

    Hebatalla El Semary, Mass Communication Department, UAE University

    Abstract:While the number of computers in the

    classroom continues to increase and tremendoussupport for technology integration exists inacademia, a major discrepancy exists betweenthe level of technology use expected ofeducators and the actual use and integration of

    technology in the classroom. This articleexamines barriers that impede the effective use

    of technology in education.

    Index terms: Classroom technology,Professional development, Smart boards,Technology Plan

    1. Introduction

    Whether technology should be used inclassrooms is no longer the issue in education.Instead, the current emphasis is ensuring thattechnology is used effectively to create newopportunities for learning and to promotestudent achievement. Educational technology is

    not, and never will be, transformative on itsown, however. It requires the assistance ofeducators who integrate technology into thecurriculum, align it with student learning goals,and use it for engaged learning projects.

    Dowling & Harland (2001) observed two mathclasses using technology in the classroom andnoted that the students were motivated and, for

    the most part, fully engaged. In Laura Dowlingsobservations, it was noted that there needed to

    be an additional adult in the room to assist the

    students when difficult questions arose.Direction sheets given by the instructor proved

    also to be essential.(1)

    "Teacher quality is the factor that matters mostfor student learning," note Darling-Hammondand Berry (1998).(2) Therefore, professional

    development for faculty becomes the key issue

    in using technology to improve the quality of

    learning in the classroom.

    In this sense, Franklin & others (2009) studied amentoring relationship among elementary

    teachers in a rural school district and graduatestudents in instructional technology in theCollege of Education at a university in theMidwestern United States. Teachers identifiedcommon barriers to technology use: vision,

    access, time, assessment, and professionaldevelopment.The mentoring relationship provided the

    professional development support needed topromote opportunities for modeling the

    curriculum integration of technology,redesigning lessons around technology-richresources, and overcoming barriers totechnology use (3) Many organizations areinstituting mentoring programs as a means of

    enhancing recruitment into the field, upgradingskills, increasing job satisfaction, and retaining

    employees in a mobile job market (4).

    Other factors affecting the implementation oftechnology:

    1. Resistance to change:A. Cohen points out that schools and

    the nature of teaching have remainedrelatively unchanged for hundreds ofyears.B.

    Marcinkiewicz believes that people

    avoid using computers because they fear a loss

    of status and hard-earned skills and do not haveadequate knowledge.

    C. Mandated change in educationtypically results in superficial adoption rather

    than incorporating the substance.2. Teachers attitudes:

    A.Using Rogers model, adopters of

    technology fall into one of five general

    http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/profdevl/pd2prof.htmhttp://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/profdevl/pd2prof.htmhttp://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/profdevl/pd2prof.htmhttp://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/profdevl/pd2prof.htm
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    categories: innovators, early adopters, earlymajority, late majority, and laggards.

    B. Only 16% educators fall into theinnovator and early adopter categories.

    3. Professional development: training , time,and support .(4)

    Lack of professional development for

    technology use is one of the most seriousobstacles to fully integrating technology into thecurriculum

    According to a recent survey by two largest

    teachers' unions, most educators are enthusiasticabout the role technology can play in improving

    learning, but many still feel unprepared to takeadvantage of digital tools in the classroom(5).What's stopping them? The persistent barriers

    could include too few computers, a lack oftechnical support, and inadequate professional

    development.

    Meanwhile, the Office of Technology

    Assessment's 1995 report on teachers andtechnology indicated that schools have madesignificant progress in implementing technologyto help teachers use basic technology tools butthey still struggle with integrating technology

    into the curriculum (6).

    The National Center for Education Statistics(2000) studied the integration of varioustechnologies in the teaching/learning process.

    The Center reported the following examples ofhow teachers had integrated technology: 44%

    reported using technology for classroominstruction, 42% reported using computerapplications, 12% reported using practice drills,

    41% reported requiring research using theInternet, 20% required students to use

    technology to solve problems and analyze data,27% had students conduct research using CD-

    ROMs, 27% assigned students to producemultimedia reports/projects, 23% assignedgraphical presentations of materials, 21%assigned demonstrations/simulations, and 7%assigned students to correspond with others over

    the Internet (7).

    On the other hand, Redmann, Kotrlik & Douglas

    addressed how technology was being integrated

    in the teaching/ learning process in secondarymarketing education programs for four distinct

    and independent phases: Exploration,Experimentation, Adoption, and AdvancedIntegration. The phases in which marketingteachers were most active are exploration of the

    potential of using technology in theteaching/learning process, and adoptingtechnology for regular use in instruction. Theyare not very active in the experimentation phase,

    but they are operating at a moderate level in theadvanced integration phase. Teachers perceive

    that minor barriers exist that prevent them fromintegrating technology into the teaching/learning

    process among which is professionaldevelopment. But, in general, they perceive they

    are good teachers (8).

    Professional development for technology useshould be an integral part of the collegetechnology plan or an overall college-improvement plan, not just an add-on. Initial

    inclusion in the technology plan ensures thatprofessional development is considered an

    essential factor in using technology to improveteaching and learning

    The technology plan, with its importantprofessional development component, should be

    written by a technology planning committee or

    team. The group approach ensures that allstakeholders support the integration oftechnology into the curriculum as well assustained professional development in

    technology use for all teachers andadministrators. The technology planning team

    ensures that the professional developmentcomponent of the technology plan is research

    based and meets high standards for effective

    staff development (9).

    Sources of professional development standards

    include the five tenets outlined in the PolicyPositionpaper, developed by the National Boardfor Professional Teaching Standards, and theStandards for Staff Development, developed by

    the National Staff Development Council (10).The technology planning team has important

    things to think about when reviewing theprofessional development section of atechnology plan, such as the following: How do

    http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#officehttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#officehttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#nationalhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#nationalhttp://www.ncrel.org/tandl/plan4.htmhttp://www.nbpts.org/standards/know_do/policy.htmlhttp://www.nbpts.org/standards/know_do/policy.htmlhttp://www.nsdc.org/standards/index.cfmhttp://www.nsdc.org/standards/index.cfmhttp://www.nbpts.org/standards/know_do/policy.htmlhttp://www.nbpts.org/standards/know_do/policy.htmlhttp://www.ncrel.org/tandl/plan4.htmhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#nationalhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#nationalhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#officehttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v19n2/redmann.html#office
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    instructional and technological goals affectprofessional development? What is expected

    from the staff as a result of their professionaldevelopment? Who will manage, design, anddeliver the professional development?

    Above all, the technology planning team shoulddetermine the school's current level of

    technology use. Materials such as the SevenDimensions for Gauging Progress ofTechnology in the Schools, developed by the

    Milken Exchange on Educational Technology,and theLearning with Technology Profile Tool,

    developed by North Central RegionalTechnology in Education Consortium, can beused to assess the school or district's current

    technology practice and provide a point ofcomparison

    Training is needed not only for faculty, but alsofor students. More than 1,200 schools have

    participated in GenYES(Youth & EducatorsSucceeding) programs, which include training

    for students and on-site professionaldevelopment for teachers. Sylvia Martinez,

    president of Generation YES (Youth &

    Educators Succeeding) believes that we canteach students to help teachers use technologymore effectively in the classroom.We've gottwelve years of data that says we can(11).

    GenYES encourages teachers to learn aboutProfessional development that's embedded in theclassroom has more staying power than one-shotworkshops. Martinez also advises sharing thevision of twenty-first-century learning withstudents.?'

    "Access, Adequacy, and Equity in Education

    Technology," published by the NationalEducation Association and the AmericanFederation of Teachers, provides several broad

    recommendations for effecting change over the

    long term. They include: Improve classroomaccess to hardware, software, and the Internet,bolster technical support, strengthen professionaldevelopment around the instructional uses of

    technology, and enlist teachers unions toadvocate for tech funding and support (12). Yet

    it fails to offer solutions for educators looking totake immediate action.

    UAEU is steadily improving its world ranking.Last year it placed 374th and rose two spots,

    coming in at 372 this year in the QS WorldUniversity Rankings 2010. The organizationranks top universities in the world. It isconsidered the strongest university in the Arab

    region. UAEU ranked 202 in the Life Sciencesand Medicine and 235 in the Arts andHumanities . And recently( Fall 2010) it openedthe new campus which is equipped with thelatest technology, particularly in terms of

    processing classes, providing them with the best

    digital technologies and laboratories to upgradethe University's teaching and linking education

    with technology.

    And in this sense, the CET(Center for

    Educational Technology)at UAEU offers some

    training courses/workshops to train Faculty touse the latest teaching techniques and the latestSoftware within classrooms, many of which areone-shot workshops. In addition , A Complete

    user manual for SMART's "Notebook "Software was distributed among faculty who

    attended the introductory workshop that washeld two days before the fall semestercommences and is also available at the UAEU

    website.

    The mission of CET is not only to show faculty

    what buttons to push, but also to clearly detailexactly when, where, how and why these toolsshould be used to enhance faculty's teaching

    practice and their students learning. This

    fall,the CET continues its efforts to help UAEUfaculty innovate and invigorate their teachingwith the new Mobile Media Initiative. Usinginexpensive, highly portable and easy-to-operatedevices, any professor or student can now create

    amazing digital multimedia materials that areready to use instantly.

    The New campus Classroom technology inUAEU:

    Visionaire is the Dubai-based company thatdesigned, selected and installed the classroom

    presentation and information technology deviceson the new campus.Most classrooms feature Smart Boards withintegrated projectors. In larger classrooms, a

    http://www.mff.org/edtech/projects.taf?_function=detail&Content_uid1=152http://www.mff.org/edtech/projects.taf?_function=detail&Content_uid1=152http://www.mff.org/edtech/projects.taf?_function=detail&Content_uid1=152http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htmhttp://www.genyes.com/http://www.genyes.com/http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htmhttp://www.mff.org/edtech/projects.taf?_function=detail&Content_uid1=152http://www.mff.org/edtech/projects.taf?_function=detail&Content_uid1=152http://www.mff.org/edtech/projects.taf?_function=detail&Content_uid1=152
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    different product called a Sympodium is used.They look much like a large LCD monitor.

    The so-called SMART boards can be used as aprojection surface for any image that can bedisplayed on a computer screen. Smart boardsurfaces are touch sensitive and can be used like

    a giant trackpad to interact with and control theconnected computer.On September 7th,2010, Visionaire invited staff

    from the CET to see and interact with a fully-equipped and operational new-campusclassroom for the first time.

    Based upon information gleaned from Visionaireon that day, the Center for Educational

    Technology has assembled three basic methodsfor teaching in classrooms on the new campus:

    1. Method : Traditional

    Nearly all classrooms are supposed to have atleast one dry-erase whiteboard surface. Facultycan recognize these normal whiteboards by their

    glossy look and smooth texture. Additionally,many are bordered top and bottom with thin,metal mounting strips. Faculty will need to bring

    their own dry-erase markers.Some larger classrooms do not appear to have

    any dry-erase surfaces. In these rooms there isan extra-wide projection screen bordered in athick black velvet frame. Of course, Faculty can

    never use makers of any kind on the Electronic

    Whiteboards2. Method 2: StandardVisionaire has equipped new-campusclassrooms with what they call a Media

    Processor Appliance or MPA. These devicesare essentially Intel-based computers running amodified version of the Windows 7 operatingsystem.Although they are computers, the majority of

    classroom MPA devices are not equipped withmonitors, keyboards, CD/DVD Driv...