basic vocabulary

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Basic Vocabulary


GAL 1000 ListGAL 101-200-attitude-conform

abandon [v] to leave or give up

ability [n] ableness to do something; a skill for doing something well

abnormal [adj] not normal, unusual

absent [adj] being not there; missing

absolutely [adv] completely; 100%

absorb [v] to take in; to take up

abstract [adj] not specific or concrete

abundant [adj] existing in large quantities

abuse [v] to treat someone or something badly

accelerate [v] to get or make faster

accept [v] to agree (to have)

access [n] the right to enter or use

accompany [v] to go with someone or something; to exist together

accomplish [v] to do or achieve

accordingly [adv] appropriate to; in compliance with

account [n] a written or spoken report of a happening

accumulate [v] to grow; to gather together

accurate [adj] exact, containing no mistakes

accuse [v] to blame

achieve [v] to gain or get something (often academic success)

acknowledge [v] to agree with; admit to; give credit to

acquire [v] to get or obtain

actual [adj] real

adapt [v] to change (often in response to a changed situation)

add [v] to include; to give or say extra

address [v] to give attention to (an issue)

adequate [adj] (good) enough; ok

adhere [v] to keep to; to follow

adjacent [adj] next to

adjust [v] to change (often in order to make something work properly)

administration [n] the people responsible for running an organization such as the government or a school

admit [v] to allow to enter

adopt [v] to take in; to start

advance [v] to go or move forward; to get better

advantage [n] benefit

advise [v] to say what someone should do; to give advice

advocate [v] to speak or write on behalf of someone or something

affair [n] to speak or write on behalf of someone or something

affair [n] an event or series of events

affect [v] to have an influence on

afford [v] to be able to pay for something

against [prep] opposed to; not for or in favour

agent [n] a person who is paid to do a job for someone

aid [n] help (often financial help)

aim [n] goal or intention

albeit [conj] although, but

align [v] to bring into line with; to make similar

allege [v] to claim or state

allocate [v] to give to (to promise to give)

alter [v] to change

alternative [n] other possibility

ambiguous [adj] not clear; open to more than one interpretation

amend [v] to change (usually to improve something)

among [prep] in, between

amount [n] how much there is of something

analyze [v] to look at something in detail in order to understand it

ancient [adj] very old

annotate [v] to make notes on a piece of writing

annual [adj] yearly

anomaly [n] an unexpected happening or piece of data

anonymous [adj] having no name or known author

anticipate [v] to expect

apart [adj] not together, separate

apparatus [n] equipment; things you need to do a job

apparent [adj] clear; obvious

appeal [v] to complain against an official judgment; to make a strong request

appear [v] to come, be seen

append [v] to add to the end (of a piece of writing)

apply [v] to be relevant (to)

appoint [v] to give a job to someone

appreciate [v] to understand (the value of someone or something)

approach [v] to near; to get closer

appropriate [adj] right (for the occasion; suitable

approve [v] to agree to

approximately [adv] about; not exactly

arbitrary [adj] not planned or thought-out; not considering the wishes of others

area [n] field, sphere

argument [n] justification or reason (for an idea)

arise [v] to happen

arrange [v] to plan to happen; to group together

artificial [adj] not real or natural

aspect [n] feature, part of

assemble [v] to get, put or bring together

assent [n] agreement

assert [v] to claim, to say strongly

assess [v] to judge or test

asset [n] advantage

assignment [n] a task; the giving of a task

assimilate [v] to take in

assist [v] to help

associate [v] to link to; to make a connection to

assume [v] to believe to be true; to presume or predict

assure [v] to make sure; to say that something will certainly happen

atmosphere [n] mood among people or groups

attach [v] to put together with

attack [n] to criticize; to attempt to harm or damage

attain [v] to get, achieve

attempt [v] to try

attend [v] to go to, to be present at

attention [n] focus

GAL 101-200-attitude-conform

attitude [n] what someone thinks about something (and how their behaviour is influenced by their thinking)

attract [v] to be interesting; to cause to like

attribute [n] characteristic; property

authentic [adj] real, genuine; not made-up or artificial

authority [n] control (right to control)

automatic [adj] happening by itself; happening naturally or usually

available [adj] can be had (bought or obtained)

average [adj] ordinary, typical

averse [adj] against

avoid [v] to not do something or go somewhere

aware [adj] knowing

background [n] family experiences; circumstances

balance [n] equalness

ban [v] to prohibit or forbid

barely [adv] not very much; hardly

base [v] to use as a way of doing or deciding something

basic [adj] first or easy

battle [n] fight, part of a war

behalf [n] as a representative of; for the benefit of

behave [v] to act or do things in a certain way

belief [n] what you think; what you believe in

belong [v] to be part of something or owned by someone

beneath [prep] below

benefit [n] advantage

besides [prep] in addition to; as well as

beyond [prep] further than: past

bias [n] favouring one more than another, prejudice

blame [v] to accuse

block [v] to not allow; to stop or prevent

bold [adj] brave

bond [n] link; tie

boundary [n] limit, extent

brief [adj] short

broad [adj] wide, extensive

broadcast [v] to tell or transmit (often by means of a television programme)

bulk [n] majority; largest part

cancel [v] to cut or stop from happening

capable [adj] able

career [n] a long-term job

case [conj] for the event that, because maybe

category [n] group of similar items

cause [n] the reason why something happens

cautious [adj] careful

cease [v] to stop

certain [adj] sure

challenge [n] difficult situation; problem

characteristic [adj] typical

chief [adj] most important

choice [n] decision, selection

circulate [v] to move from one place or person to another (often in a circle)

circumstances [n] situation

citizen [n] person (member of a country)

claim [v] to state to be true

clarify [v] to make something clear, explain

classic [adj] very good, the best or most used

classify [v] to put into a category or class

code [n] a set of rules

coincidence [n] an uncommon happening of two things

collaborate [v] to work together

collapse [v] to fall down completely and heavily; to fail

combine [v] to put or go together

command [n] control

commence [v] to start

comment [n] a short written or spoken statement or opinion

commercial [adj] to do with business

commit [v] to do (often an offense)

committee [n] a group of people meeting to discuss an issue

commodity [n] a product; something you can buy

common [adj] often seen or happening

communicate [v] to convey information

community [n] a group of people

comparison [n] a statement of how two things are similar or different

compatible [adj] able to work with someone or something else

compel [v] to force or make happen

compensation [n] money (or some other reward) given to someone who has suffered a loss or injustice

compete [v] to try and win against someone or something

competent [adj] good at something (often a job)

compile [v] to put together (often in a list

complete [adj] full or finished

complex [adj] difficult, complicated

complicate [v] to make things more complex or difficult

comply [v] to do what someone asks or orders

component [n] part of; an element of

comprehend [v] to understand

comprehensive [adj] full, complete

comprise [v] to be made up of; to include

compulsory [adj] required, must be done

conceal [v] to hide

concept [n] idea; understanding

concern [n] worry, fear

concise [adj] short, not detailed

conclude [v] to finish; to make a judgment

condemn [v] to express strong disapproval

condition [n] state

conduct [v] to do or perform; to behave

confident [adj] sure that something will happen

confine [v] to limit

confirm [v] to agree that something is correct

conflict [n] problem, struggle or battle

conform [v] to do what is required



confront [v] to deal with someone or something (often a problem or unpleasant situation)

connect [v] to bring or put together

conscious [adj] aware, knowing

consent [v] to agree

consequence [n] result

conserve [v] to preserve; to not use

consider [v] to think

considerable [adj] very big; very much

consist [v] to have in it; to have as part of it

consistent [adj] regular or predictable; remaining the same

constant [adj] not changing; long-lasting

constitute [v] to be; to make up

constraint [n] to hold back; to prevent

construct [v] to make

consult [v] to get the advice of someone ( often an expert)

consume [v] to use, or use up

contact [v] to get in touch (e.g. by phone or email)

contain [v] to have in it; to hold inside

contemplate [v] to think about; to consider

contemporary [adj] of this time, happening now

context [n] the place or situation in which something is found

continue [v] to carry on, not stop

contract [n] a written agreement, binding in law

contradict [v] to say or show that what someone has said is wrong

contrary [n] opposite

contrast [n] difference

contribute [v] to give (for example: money, help or ideas); to play a part in

control [v] to have and exercise power over something or someone

controversy [n] an issue on which their are strong and conflicting opinions

convenient [adj] easy, not causing problems

conversely [adv] opposite to what was just said; on the other hand

convert [v] to change from one thing to another

convey [v] to pass on to another person (often by speaking)

convince [v] to (try and) get someone to believe something

cooperate [v] to work (well) with another person

coordinate [v] to bring things or people together so that they work well

correlate [v] to have a close connection

correspond [v] to be related to

counsel [n] advice; advisor

course [n] a subject or period of study

cover [v] to do; to complete

create [v] to make; to use your imagination to make something new

credible [adj] believable

credit [n] gained on completing a course of study; praise

crisis [n] very dangerous situation, catastrophe

criterion [n] a way to judge the value or importance of something

criticize [v] to express disapproval; to say what you don't like or think is good about something or someone

crucial [adj] extremely important

culminate [v] to end

current [adj] happening now

custom [n] a habit (often particular to a culture)

cycle [n] a complete series of events or processes

damage [v] to spoil or break

deal [n] agreement

debate [n] formal discussion

debt [n] something owed to another person (often money)

decade [n] a period of ten years

decision [n] intention to do something, choice

declare [v] to state

decline [v] to go down or get worse

decrease [v] to get smaller, to go down

dedicate [v] to devote (time and attention)

deduce [v] to come to a conclusion about someone or something

deed [n] an action

defeat [n] a loss (often in a battle or sports event)

defect [n] problem; mistake

defend [v] to give reasons for

deficient [adj] poor, lacking in quantity or quality

define [v] to state what something is or means

definitely [adv] certainly; without doubt

degenerate [v] to get worse

degree [n] amount

delay [n] lateness

deliberate [adj] intentional, not by accident

deliver [v] to provide (often by bringing to people)

demand [n] a need or desire for

demonstrate [v] to show

denote [v] to mean; to be a sign of

dense [adj] thick; full; detailed

deny [v] to refuse ( responsibility for doing or saying something); to say that something is not correct

depart [v] to leave; to be different from

depend [v] be influenced (by), rely upon

deprive [v] to take away (the opportunity)

derive [v] to come from or get from

descend [v] to go down

description [n] an account of what something is like or looks like

deserve [v] to have the right to something

design [n] planning (drawing)

desire [n] a want or wish for something

despite [prep] although

destroy [v] to break or damage completely

detail [n] a small piece of information

detect [v] to see, find or notice

deteriorate [v] to get worse

determine [v] to find out; to establish or identify

detriment [n] disadvantage

develop [v] to grow or improve

deviate [v] to be different

device [n] object; method

devise [v] to create or think up

GAL 301-400-devote-exhibit

devote [v] to give (time) to

diagnosis [n] assessment of a situation (particularly of a problem)

diagram [n] a type of picture or chart

dictate [v] to tell someone what to do

differentiate [v] to make different; to see the difference

dimension [n] importance; amount

diminish [v] to get smaller or less important

directions [n] instructions

disaster [n] a huge problem or failure

discern [v] to see; to perceive

discover [v] to find out; to find something for the first time (esp. land or scientific knowledge)

discrete [adj] separate

discuss [v] to talk about

dismiss [v] to reject, to treat as unimportant

disperse [v] to spread out; to move apart

displace [v] to push out or take the place of something or someone

display [n] a show, demonstration, illustration

dispose [v] to get rid of

dispute [n] argument; conflict

disrupt [v] to interrupt an event; to damage

distance [n] how far it is from one place to another

distinct [adj] clear and strong

distinguish [v] to make clear the differences between two things

distort [v] to change or affect something (negatively)

distribute [v] to give out

district [n] region of a city

disturb [v] to interrupt, stop from working

diverge [v] to move apart; to be different from

diverse [adj] many and different

domain [n] area (of interest)

domestic [adj] home

dominate [v] to be much better, to play the most important part

donate [v] to give (usually money)

doubt [n] a feeling of uncertainty (whether something is true)

drain [v] to take away; to get rid of

dramatically [adv] very strongly, significantly

drastic [adj] severe; great

drawback [n] disadvantage, problem

due [prep] as a result of, because of

duration [n] period of time

duty [n] responsibility, or job that you are required to do

dynamic [adj] changing; growing; energetic

earn [v] to get money or another reward (usually by working for it)

economic [adj] financial; to do with money

edit [v] to make changes in a piece of writing

education [n] schooling

effect [n] result

effective [adj] good, working well

efficient [adj] working quickly and easily

effort [n] hard work; attempt

elaborate [adj] detailed; complex

elect [v] to choose by voting

element [n] aspect, part

elementary [adj] easy

eligible [adj] being entitled or qualified to do something

eliminate [v] to dispose of

embody [v] to be a good example of ..

emerge [v] to come out; to become known

emphasize [v] to stress, to say something strongly

employ [v] to give a job to someone; to use

enable [v] to make something or someone able to do something

encounter [v] to meet or experience

encourage [v] to move someone to do something by positive talk; support or help

enforce [v] to make something happen (particularly a law or regulation)

engage [v] to participate in; to focus attention on

enhance [v] to make something better

enlarge [v] to make larger

enormous [adj] enormous [adj]

ensure [v] to make sure (of)

enter [v] to go in or put in

entire [adj] whole, all

entitle [v] to give the right to do something

entity [n] thing; body; organization

enumerate [v] to list

environment [n] the world around us

episode [n] period of time

equipment [n] the things you need (to do a job or play sport, etc.)

equivalent [adj] equal to; the same as

error [n] a mistake

especially [adv] particularly

essential [adj] very important

establish [v] to begin or set up

estimate [v] to make an intelligent guess

evaluate [v] to decide on the value, quality or importance of something

event [n] a happening

eventually [adv] in the end

evidence [n] proof, signs

evident [adj] clear

evolve [v] to develop (into something better)

exact [adj] precise, opposite of approximate

exaggerate [v] to "overstate" the truth; to say something is bigger or better than it really is

examine [v] to look at carefully

exceed [v] to be more than or better than

except [prep] but) not

exchange [v] to give or change one thing and get a different thing

exclude [v] to leave out; opposite of include

exercise [n] a piece of work, activity

exert [v] to use

exhaust [v] to use up

exhibit [n] to show

GAL 401-500-exist-illustrate

exist [v] to be alive, to be in the world

expand [v] to get bigger; to move into new areas

expel [v] to drive or push out

expense [n] cost

experience [n] knowledge and skills gained over a long period of time

experiment [n] test

expert [n] someone with great knowledge in a particular field

explain [v] to give the reason for something or say how to do something

explicit [adj] clearly and openly expressed

exploit [v] to use (sometimes in a negative way)

explore [v] to look into a place or thing (in order to learn more about it)

exponent [n] someone who holds and states an opinion

expose [v] to uncover, reveal

express [v] to say or mean

extend [v] to make longer in time or space

extent [n] size, amount

external [adj] outside

extract [n] to remove; to take out and use

extraordinary [adj] very unusual

extremely [adv] very

facilitate [v] to make something easier

facilities [n] buildings and other places that can be used by people

factor [n] an aspect to be considered

fade [v] to disappear slowly

fail [v] to not do something, or not work as expected; to do badly

faint [adj] not strong

fairly [adv] quite, somewhat

fallacy [n] mistake; false belief

familiar [adj] known; well-known

fare [v] to do or succeed

fault [n] fault [n]

fear [v] to be concerned or frightened about, to afraid

feasible [adj] possible

feature [n] part, aspect

fee [n] money for a service (e.g. a baking service)

field [n] area of interest or study

figure [n] number

final [adj] last

finance [n] to do with money and payment

firm [adj] strong, cannot be changed

flexible [adj] can be changed or bent

fluctuate [v] to vary; to rise and fall

focus [v] to direct attention (on an issue)

force [v] to make happen or to make someone do something

forecast [n] prediction

forego [v] to do without; to give up

form [v] to make (into a shape)

formal [adj] serious, not relaxed or everyday

format [n] appearance, layout, way of presenting

former [adj] previous, the one before, the first of two

formula [n] a method of doing something

formulate [v] formulate [v]

forthcoming [adj] coming soon

fortunate [adj] lucky

found [v] to begin (often an organization)

fragment [n] part of something

frequent [adj] often

friction [n] problems or arguments between two people or groups

frustrate [v] to stop or prevent

fulfill [v] to do; to carry out (completely)

function [n] job or role

fund [n] money collected for a particular purpose

fundamental [adj] very important

furthermore [adv] also, in addition

gain [n] to get; to increase in ..

gap [n] space, opening or time between

gather [v] to bring or get together, to collect

generally [adv] usually

generate [v] to make or produce

generation [n] group of people all born around the same time

genuine [adj] real and authentic

global [adj] world

goal [n] aim or intention

govern [v] to control or influence

gradually [adv] slowly; steadily

grant [n] a sum of money given to a person or organization

greatly [adv] very much

growth [n] development, increase

guarantee [n] to promise or assure that something will or will not happen

guide [n] someone or something that helps people (to understand or find their way)

habit [n] something you do regularly

halt [v] halt [v]

hardly [adv] not very much

harm [v] to damage or injure

harsh [adj] hard, unfair

hence [adv] so, therefore

hesitate [v] to pause before saying or doing something

hierarchy [n] organizational structure (e.g. showing who works for whom)

highlight [v] to show (the important features of something)

homogeneous [adj] having the same qualities or characteristics

hostile [adj] unfriendly; dangerous; strongly opposed to

hypothesis [n] idea or prediction

ideal [adj] best, optimal

identical [adj] exactly the same

identical [adj] exactly the same

identify [v] to know or say who or what something is

ignorance [n] lack of knowledge

ignore [v] to take no notice of; to leave out (of consideration)

illuminate [v] to show clearly; to light up

illustrate [v] to explain; to make clear

GAL 501-600-image-main

image [n] picture

imaginary [adj] not real; from the imagination

immediate [adj] first (without delay)

immense [adj] very large

impact [n] effect

implement [v] to start or put into practice (something that has been planned)

implication [n] result or consequence

imply [v] to mean; to give to understand

import [v] to bring in (to a country)

impose [v] to force; to require to happen

impress [v] to create a favourable reaction

improve [v] to get better

impulse [n] reason or motivation to do something

incentive [n] reward (to do something)

incident [n] happening; event

include [v] to put in; to have in

income [n] money earned

incorporate [v] to include

increase [v] to get bigger

indeed [adv] used in confirmation or emphasis; really

independent [adj] free; not needing anyone or anything else

indicate [v] to show or convey

indirectly [adv] in a indirect way; not straight or immediate

individual [n] one person

induce [v] to make happen; to force

industry [n] area of business ( often manufacturing )

inevitable [adj] cannot be changed or avoided; obvious

infer [v] to come to a conclusion about something

infinite [adj] without an end

influence [n] effect

inform [v] to say, give information

inherent [adj] part of; a fundamental characteristic of

inhibit [v] to prevent or stop

initial [adj] starting, first

innovation [n] new object or idea

innovation [n] new object or idea

inquire [v] to ask

insert [v] to put in

insight [n] understanding (often of a complex problem)

insist [v] to demand; to make a strong claim

inspect [v] to look at carefully

install [v] to put in (often a machine or new system)

instance [n] example

instant [adj] immediate

instead [prep] in place of; rather than

instinct [n] natural feeling or reaction

institution [n] a large organization; an important system or custom

instruction [n] advice or teaching how to do something; an order to do something

integrate [v] to fit into a new situation

intense [adj] strong, extreme

intention [n] plan, aim

interact [v] to react, to affect and be affected, to meet

interfere [v] to prevent; to harm

interior [n] inside

interpretation [n] explanation; assessment

interrupt [v] to stop something from happening

interval [n] a period of time

intervene [v] to step into a situation (in order to stop or change something)

intrinsic [adj] belonging to; inherent in

introduce [v] to talk about or bring in for the first time

invent [v] to create (often a new object)

invest [v] to put money into something

investigate [v] to find out what has happened or why something has happened

invisible [adj] cannot be seen

involve [v] to include or mean

isolate [v] to separate something or someone from others

issue [n] a matter or problem

item [n] thing, element

join [v] to become a member (of an organization) ; to get together with others

journey [n] a long trip to a different place

judge [v] to give an opinion about someone or something

justice [n] fairness in law

justify [v] to give a reason for doing something

key [adj] most important

label [v] to give a name to someone or something

labor [n] work

lack [n] absence of a thing

largely [adv] mostly

latter [adj] the second of two things mentioned

launch [v] to begin

layer [n] level

lecture [n] a talk on a particular subject; talk criticizing unacceptable behavior

legal [adj] acceptable in law (to do with the law)

legislation [n] governmental rule; law

legitimate [adj] correct; allowed

lessen [v] to reduce

level [n] standard; layer; amount

liable [adj] likely to happen; at risk of happening

liberty [n] freedom

license [n] permission to do something (often an official document)

likely [adj] probable

limit [n] extent, boundary

local [adj] in the area where you live or work

location [n] place, where something or someone is

logical [adj] making sense

loose [adj] not firm or finished

loss [n] removal or reduction

magnify [v] to make or show larger

magnitude [n] size; amount

main [adj] most important

GAL 601-700-maintain-persist

maintain [v] to claim or state

major [adj] important, large

majority [n] more than 50%

manage [v] to succeed in doing something; to be able to do something

manifest [v] show

manipulate [v] to (use and) change

manner [n] way of doing something

manufacture [v] to produce or make (with machines)

margin [n] amount; distance

massive [adj] very large

master [v] to (gain) control

materials [n] the things you need to do something

means [n] way

measure [v] to find out how much there is of something

mechanism [n] procedure, process

medium [adj] in the middle

member [n] a person who is part of a team or other organization

mental [adj] of the brain or mind

mention [v] to say; state

merely [adv] only, just, simply

method [n] a way of doing something

migrate [v] to go to another place

military [adj] to do with army

minimum [n] the smallest amount; the least

minor [adj] small, not important

mixture [n] combination

mobile [adj] moving; able to move

moderate [adj] not very much; not very strong; not extreme

modify [v] to change

monitor [v] to watch ( someone's or something's behaviour )

moreover [adv] also .., what is more ..

motivate [v] to get someone interested enough to do something

motive [n] reason

multiply [v] to increase greatly

namely [adv] specifically, that is to say ( .. used to list or explain)

naturally [adv] of course, obviously

necessary [adj] needed; very important

neglect [v] to not think about or care for

negotiate [v] to discuss (usually in politics or business)

neither [conj] not one or the other; not either

neutral [adj] neither for nor against; neither positive nor negative

nevertheless [adv] however (although / despite that)

notice [v] to see or realize

notion [n] idea; concept

novel [adj] new

numerous [adj] very many

obey [v] to do as commanded or expected

object [n] thing

objection [n] (a statement of) disagreement or disapproval

objective [n] aim or goal

obligation [n] a requirement to do something

observe [v] to watch carefully

obsolete [adj] not used or needed any more; out of date

obstacle [n] barrier; problem

obtain [v] to get

obvious [adj] clear, evident

occasion [n] time (opportunity)

occasionally [adv] sometimes

occupy [v] to up space or time

occur [v] to happen; take place

odd [adj] strange, unusual

offend [v] to go against; to upset

offer [v] to ask if someone would like something (e.g. food or help)

official [adj] approved by an authority

omit [v] to leave something out or not do something

operation [n] procedure; happening; process

opinion [n] view; what you think about someone or something

opportunity [n] chance

oppose [v] to be against or fight against something

optional [adj] not necessary or compulsory; can do it if you want

order [n] sequence, place

ordinary [adj] usual, typical, every day

organize [v] to put into (its proper) place

original [adj] the first of its kind

otherwise [conj] or (else)

outcome [n] result

outline [n] plan or summary

outstanding [adj] excellent

outstanding [adj] excellent

overall [adj] general

overcome [v] to conquer, defeat

overlap [v] to have in common; to cover part of

overly [adv] too

override [v] to take precedence over; to disregard

owe [v] to be in someone's debt (especially money)

own [v] to have or possess

participate [v] to take part

particular [adj] specific

passage [n] a piece of written or spoken text

passive [adj] not active; unresponsive

pattern [n] clear and consistent behavior

penalty [n] punishment; negative consequence

perceive [v] to see; to become aware of with one of the senses; to think

performance [n] action or achievement

perhaps [adv] maybe, possibly

period [n] a length of time

permanent [adj] lasting for ever or for a very long time

permit [v] to allow

perpetual [adj] continuing for ever; never disappearing

persist [v] to continue (often in the face of difficulty)



perspective [n] view; opinion; way of thinking

persuade [v] to try and make someone do something or agree to something

phase [n] a (short) period of time; stage

phenomenon [n] a happening (often unusual or unexpected)

phrase [n] a few words; a written or spoken saying

physical [adj] of the body

plenty [n] many, lots of

point [n] purpose; reason; value

policy [n] formal rules

political [adj] to do government and politics

poor [adj] bad, unsatisfactory

portion [n] part, amount

positive [adj] good; optimistic

possess [v] to have or own

postpone [v] to put back in time

potential [n] good possibility

power [n] the right or authority to do something

practical [adj] useful; possible

praise [v] to express approval about something someone has done

precaution [n] something done to avoid danger, harm or problems

precede [v] to go or be before someone or something

precise [adj] exact

predict [v] to say what will happen in the future

predominantly [adv] mostly

prefer [v] to like better

prejudice [n] bias, discrimination, beliefs or feelings influenced by one's own background

preliminary [adj] first; initial

prepare [v] to get something ready (or to get ready for something)

present [v] to give or show; to make a presentation

preserve [v] to keep (safe)

pressure [n] force; influence; stress

prestige [n] fame and respect

presume [v] to believe, assume

prevail [v] to succeed; to overcome

prevent [v] to stop from doing or happening

previous [adj] the one before

prime [adj] most important

principal [adj] most important

principle [n] rule

prior [prep] before

priority [n] first and most important task

privilege [n] a right (to do something)

probable [adj] likely

procedure [n] the way to do something

proceed [v] to go forward (and do ..)

proceed [v] to go forward (and do ..)

process [n] a series of steps

procure [v] to get or obtain

produce [v] to make or create

profession [n] job; occupation

profit [n] money gained

profound [adj] deep; great; serious

program [n] a course of lessons; a project

progress [n] improvement or development

prohibit [v] to ban, disallow

promote [v] to encourage; to raise to a higher position in a job

prompt [adj] quick; on or before time

propensity [n] tendency; desire

proper [adj] correct, appropriate

property [n] the things that belong to someone, especially their home

proportion [n] amount; number; percentage

propose [v] to suggest

prospect [n] chance, likelihood

prosper [v] to do well; to become rich

protect [v] to keep something out of danger

protest [v] to express anger or unhappiness about something

prove [v] to show to be true

provide [v] to give

province [n] area (of interest

provoke [v] to cause to happen

public [adj] open to all; not private

publish [v] to make available in paper or online form

purchase [v] to buy

pure [adj] complete, 100%

purpose [n] reason, goal

pursue [v] to follow (or do)

qualify [v] to become eligible

quality [n] worth or value

quantity [n] quantity [n]

radical [adj] extreme, strong

raise [v] to lift; to make higher

random [adj] by chance; without any sequence

range [n] extent, distance between two points

rank [n] position (in a list or hierarchy)

rapid [adj] quick

rare [adj] unusual

rate [n] quantity; proportion; speed

rather [adv] instead

ratio [n] mathematical relationship between two amount

rational [adj] base on reason, not on emotion or instinct

react [v] to respond

realize [v] to come to know or understand

reasonable [adj] acceptable, quite good

receive [v] to get

recently [adv] in the near past

recognize [v] to know or understand (who someone is or what something is)

recommend [v] to suggest something to someone because it is good

record [n] evidence; documentation

recover [v] to get back

recur [v] to happen again

GAL 801-900-reduce-situation

reduce [v] to make smaller or shorter

refer [v] to direct (attention) to; to mean

reflect [v] to think or consider

reform [v] to change and improve

reform [v] to change and improve

refuse [v] to not do something that someone wants you to do

refute [v] to prove to be untrue; to deny

regard [v] to think or have an opinion about something or someone

regarding [prep] about, concerning, with respect to

region [n] part of a place

region [n] part of a place

regret [v] to feel sorry (for doing or saying something)

regular [adj] predictable, following a pattern; normal

regulate [v] to control

reinforce [v] to make something stronger

reject [v] to refuse

reject [v] to refuse

related [adj] connected; having something to do with each other

relationship [n] the way to things are connected

release [v] to let go or let out

relevant [adj] connected to the topic of discussion or consideration

reliable [adj] can be trusted, does not let you down

reluctance [n] unwillingness; hesitation

remain [v] to stay; still exist

remedy [n] cure (often for an illness)

remote [adj] far, distant, small

remove [v] to take away

repeat [v] to do or say again

replace [v] to put in or take the place of ..

reply [n] an answer

represent* [v] to be; to show or indicate

request [v] to ask politely

require [v] to need

research [n] study; the finding of information

reserve [v] to keep

resident [n] a person who lives in a place

resign [v] to give up (one's job)

resist [v] to fight against

resource [n] a source of information or material

respect [v] to think positively about someone

respectively [adv] an expression used to refer to two things, one after the other

response [n] answer or reply; reaction

responsibility [n] job, duty to do something

restore [v] to put back, create again

restrict [v] to limit

result [n] outcome, effect

retain [v] to keep

retire [v] to stop working

retreat [v] to go back

reveal [v] to show or uncover

revenue [n] money, income

reverse [v] to turn back or go back

review [v] to check over (and make changes)

revise [v] to change (in order to improve)

revive [v] to bring back (to life)

revolution [n] (a time of) great change

reward [v] to give something (e.g. a prize) for good work or behavior

rigid [adj] strict, unbending

rise [n] to go up

risk [v] to act in a way that might lead to danger or failure

role [n] job or function

rotate [v] to turn or move (around)

roughly [adv] about, approximately

route [n] the way to get to a place or a thing

royal [adj] of kings and queens

ruin [v] to spoil or damage

sample [n] example; a smaller number of a larger collection

sane [adj] reasonable; not mad

satisfactory [adj] OK; enough

scale [n] extent

scarce [adj] rare, not abundant

schedule [n] timetable

scheme [n] plan. idea, project

scope [n] extent, range

section [n] part

sector [n] part; area

secure [adj] safe

seek [v] to look for or want

seldom [adv] rare

select [v] to choose

separate [v] to pull or put apart

sequence [n] the order in which things are arranged or happen

series [n] a number of things, one after the other

serious [adj] severe, large

service [n] work done for others; help

settle [v] to solve a problem or dispute

several [adj] many

severe [adj] serious, harsh

share [v] to exchange; to give

shift [n] change

shortage [n] lack; an amount which is less than needed

shrink [v] to get smaller

significant [adj] important, large

signify [v] to mean; to be a sign of

similar [adj] like, almost the same as

simply [adv] completely; just

simultaneously [adv] at the same time

since [conj] because

site [n] place

situation [n] circumstances

skill [n] ability (e.g. in sport or music)

slight [adj] small

smooth [adj] easy, unproblematic

society [n] a group of people; the entire group of people living in a country

sole [adj] only

solve [v] to find an answer

somewhat [adv] quite, rather

sound [adj] good; strong

source [n] where something begins, where you can find something

spare [adj] not needed

specify [v] to state exactly

speculate [v] to think and talk about (often future events)

speed [n] speed [n]

sphere [n] area of interest

spontaneous [adj] happening without warning or planning

spread [v] to move (over a wider area)

stable [adj] not changing; not easy to change

staff [n] people working at a particular place (particularly an office or school)

stage [n] period of time, part of a process

standard [n] quality

state [n] condition, situation

statement [n] a spoken sentence or sentences (sometimes prepared in advance)

statistic [n] mathematical number

status [n] position, standing

steady [adj] gradual; without interruptions; firm

stereotype [n] a fixed idea about someone or something (often that is only partly true)

stimulate [v] to interest, make grow or encourage

stipulate [v] to require

store [v] to put something in a place where it can be found and used later

straightforward [adj] easy

strain [v] to put under stress or make difficult

strategy [n] a plan for how to achieve a goal

stress [v] to emphasize; to say what is important

strict [adj] hard, not changeable

strive [v] to work or try hard

structure [n] the way something is made or organized

struggle [n] a fight, a difficult situation to be overcome

subjective [adj] based on personal opinion or feeling

submit [v] to give; to send

subsequent [adj] next, following

subsidize [v] to support financially

substantial [adj] large

substitute [n] a thing or person to take the place of another

subtle [adj] not clear or strong

succeed [v] to do well

suffer [v] to experience something bad or painful

sufficient [adj] enough

suggest [v] to say an idea; to recommend

suitable [adj] good for a particular job or purpose

sum [n] an amount of money, total

summary [n] a short account of the most important details

superficial [adj] done quickly and without enough thought; not thorough; trivial

superior [adj] better

supervise [v] to control; to watch over people doing something

supplementary [adj] extra; additional

supply [n] provision, store

support [n] help

suppose [v] to think, imagine

suppress [v] to hold back; to not allow to happen

surface [n] the outside layer of an object

surplus [n] an amount that is more than needed or expected

surround [v] to be, go or make all the way around

survey [n] questionnaire; information gained by questioning people or data

survive [v] to not die

suspect [v] to believe

suspend [v] to stop (often for a short time only)

sustain [v] to keep going; to maintain

symbol [n] a picture; the representation of an idea

symptom [n] sign (often of a disease or other problem)

target [n] aim, goal

task [n] job

technical [adj] to do with machines or the way things work

technique [n] a method of doing something

temporary [adj] for a short or limited time

tend [v] to often behave in a certain way

term [n] a word or expression

terminate [v] to finish or stop

territory [n] land; area (of interest)

theory [n] idea or hypothesis

thereby [adv] by doing this

therefore [adv] so, as a result

thorough [adj] complete and careful

though [conj] although, even though, but

although, even though, but to warn or show signs of danger

thus [adv] so

tolerate [v] to allow to happen; to bear

tool [n] something used to do a job

topic [n] area of interest or discussion

area of interest or discussion difficult, strong

trace [n] sign; indication; evidence

trade [v] to exchange products or services

tradition [n] a usual, old-time way of doing things

train [v] to teach someone how to do a job

trait [n] characteristic; aspect

transfer [v] to move to a different place or job

transform [v] to change (often completely)

transition [n] a move from one (place, time, etc.) to another

transmit [v] to send or convey

treatment [n] way of handing a person, situation or problem (often of illness)

trend [n] pattern of continuing behavior

trigger [v] to (cause to) start

trivial [adj] not important

trust [v] to believe that someone or something will be or work as promised

typical [adj] usual

ultimate [adj] final or most important

undergo [v] to receive or experience

underlie [v] to be the reason for or cause of something

undertake [v] to (plan to) do

uniform [adj] having the same qualities

unique [adj] single, unusual, one of a kind

unite [v] to bring or get together

universally [adv] all over the world; by everyone

unless [conj] if not

urban [adj] of the town or city

urgent [adj] very important, must be done immediately

utilize [v] to use

utter [adj] complete, total

vague [adj] not clear or strong

valid [adj] correct

valuable [adj] worth a lot of money; important

various [adj] several, of different kinds

vary [n] to change or be different

vast [adj] very large

verbal [adj] to do with words and language (especially the spoken language)

verify [v] to prove or claim the truth

version [n] form

victory [n] victory [n]

view [v] to have an opinion

violate [v] to spoil or break

GAL 901-1045-virtually-yield.vidoe

virtually [adv] almost

visual [adj] to do with sight and seeing

vital [adj] very important

volume [n] amount

voluntary [adj] done freely; from personal choice

warn [v] to notify (of possible danger)

whereas [conj] in contrast

whether [conj] if

while [conj] used to contrast to people or things; although

widespread [adj] common

willing [adj] happy or prepared to do something

wise [adj] intelligent; sensible

withdraw [v] to go back or take away

worth [prep] useful; having a point or purpose

yet [conj] but

yield [v] to produce