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    H20 &Co.

    Carbon Nanotube Membranes

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    Introduction3.4 Billion

    One third of worldspopulation haswater shortages, andthis is expected todouble by 2025

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    Introduction (cont.) HO & Co. has developed a more cost efficient way to

    remove chemicals and infectious agents from water.

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    Carbon nanotubes Small rolled sheets of graphite, as strong as steel

    Lattice pattern

    Less than one nm Single-walled (SWNT) and multi-walled (MWNT)

    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.aip.org/png/images/ando.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.aip.org/png/2003/186.htm&usg=___f1TwJmiqBZdQlcTcDVlYtJcVQU=&h=453&w=450&sz=75&hl=en&start=4&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=504WR2VDD7Ga-M:&tbnh=127&tbnw=126&prev=/images?q=multiwalled+carbon+nanotubes&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbs=isch:1
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    Membrane Composition Electrochemical etching erodes metals and forms a

    porous layer in the Silicon. Iron oxide is placed on top.

    It is exposed to C2H4 (ethene) at high temperatures.The tubes grow verticallyand tightly. Exposure timedetermines the length of

    the nanotube. Silicon Nitride is added

    between gaps to stabilize.

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    How it Works Negative carboxylics draw water through the tube.

    Ions cannot fit through

    the 1 nm tubesAt .93 nm in diameter,

    95% of ions are filteredout of water

    Up to 100 times faster

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    How it Works (cont.)Also filters out bacteria and viruses

    When passed through a nanotube, infectious agents will betrapped and unable to pass through to the other side.

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    Finance SWNTs: $95 per gram

    MWNTs: $15 per gram

    Composite: $35 per gram 2-3 year life span

    Cost 2-7 cents per day in use

    Average of 2 cents less expensive than other filters $7.30 cheaper per year

    $25 per membrane

    (Water Filtration Comparisons & Reviews 3)

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    Finance (cont.)COMPANY COST OF FILTRATION PER1000 GALLONS OF

    COMPOUNDS

    AVERAGE % OF REMOVAL

    OF THE GOVERNMENTS

    TOP 11 DANGEROUS

    COMPOUNDS

    Brita $273.91 22%

    Everpure $229.00 26%

    Kenmore $198.99 78%PUR $299.59 44%

    nSpring (us) $70 95%(Water Filtration Comparisons & Reviews 3)

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    Finance (cont.) Global market for

    nanofiltrationmembranes: CAGR26.1%

    Water treatmentsector: CAGR27.4%

    More regulationsprotectingenvironment

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    Finance (cont.) Rent

    Building $10,000 a month

    Equipment $20,000 a month Materials - $3,000 a month

    Miscellaneous - $1,000 a month

    Other

    Accounting - $10,000 Employees (8) - $25,000 every six months

    Total (6 Months) = $414,000

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    Conclusion

    Provides clean,

    desalinated, water. Filters out bacteria

    and viruses

    Cheaper price.

    In demand

    Faster filtration

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    Works Cited Ahalya, N., T. V. Ramachandra, and R. D. Kanamadi. "Biosorption of Heavy Metals." Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment 7.4 (2003).

    Energy and Wetlands Research. Centre for Ecological Sciences. Web. 1 Dec. 2009..

    Ball, Philip. "Nanoplumbing: More than Just a Pipe Dream."New Scientist 19 Jan. 2009. Print.

    Bischoff, Brian L. "Membranes and Their Uses." Inorganic Membrane Technology Laboratory. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 9 Oct. 2002. Web.20 Dec. 2009. http://www.inorganicmembranes.info/uses.html.

    Curtis, Rick. "OA Guide to Water Purification." Princeton, Mar. 1998. Web. .

    Gagliardi, Margareth. "Nanotechnology." BBC Research. BBC, Sept. 2007. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. .

    Kalaugher, Liz. "Carbon Nanotube Membrane Filters Fast."Nanotechweb.org. IOP Publishing, 18 May 2006. Web. 22 Apr. 2010..

    Kaul, Steven. "Nanofiltration." Tahan. University of Wisconson-Madison, 2005. Web. 22 Dec. 2009..

    "Morphology of the Sphagnopsida." University of California Museum of Paleontology. Berkeley Natural History Museums, 1994. Web.

    Olsen, Stefanie. "Nanotubes Squeeze Salt From Water." CNET News. CNET News, 22 May 2006. Web. 23 Dec. 2009. .

    Srivastava, A., O. N. Srivastava, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, and P. M. Ajayan. "Carbon Nanotube Filters."Nature Materials 3 (2004): 610-14. Web. 15 Apr. 2010..

    Stark, Anne M. "Nanotube Memranes Offer Possibility of Cheaper Desalination." Lawrence River National Laboratory Public Affairs. 17 Oct. 2007.Web. 22 Apr. 2010. .

    "Water Filter Comparisons & Reviews." Water Filter Comparisons - Compare Top Rated Water Filters. Web. 06 May 2010..