ch 9 industrial revolution
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- 1. While theAmericanRevolution andthe FrenchRevolution werebeing fought inthe late 1700s,another kind ofrevolution tookhold in Britain.Though notpolitical, thisrevolutionknown as theIndustrialRevolutionbrought aboutjust as manychanges tosociety.
2. The Industrial Revolution began in GreatBritain during the late 1700s. Changes in the way land was used andnew farming methods increasedproductivity. Skilled inventors developed newtechnology, and entrepreneurs withmoney invested in new or expandedventures. 3. New Inventions and Ideas 4. Capitalism was a major factor in spurringindustrial growth. It was an economic system in Capitalismwhich individuals and private firms, not thegovernment, own the means of production,including land, machinery, and the workplace.In a capitalist system, individuals decide howthey can make a profit and determine businesspractices accordingly Industrialists practiced industrial capitalismwhich involved continually expanding factoriesor investing in new businesses. After investingin a factory, capitalists used profits to hire moreworkers and buy more raw materials and newmachines. Mass Production: the production of hugequantities of identical goods Manufacturers invested in machines to replacemore costly human labor. Machines were fastworking and precise and enabled industrialiststo mass-produce 5. Adam Smith Adam Smith was a Scottish economist whoset down the workings of a laissez-faireeconomy. In The Wealth of Nations of 1776, Smithstated that businesses compete to producegoods as inexpensively as possible, andconsumers buy the best goods at the lowestprices. Efficient producers make more profit,hire more workers, invent new stuff, andcontinue to expand, to everyones benefit. By the 1850s, Great Britain, the worldsleading industrial power, had adopted freetrade and other laissez-faire policies.-As the Industrial Revolution sped up, Smiths ideas influencedeconomic thought and practice. Those ideas are still true today. 6. Capitalist Ideas During the Industrial Revolution, European thinkers rejectedmercantilism with its government controls. These thinkers supported laissez-faire, a policy allowingbusiness to operate without government interference. Laissez-faire comes from a French term meaning let themalone. European thinkers held that fewer taxes and regulations wouldenable farmers to grow more produce. In the early 1800s, laissez-faire soon gained the support ofmiddle-class owners of railroads, factories, and mines. 7. English: Work by Ford Madox Brown, 1852-63 Oil on canvas. Original in the ManchesterCity Art Galleries 8. Great Britain Leads the WayMoney and Industry This agriculture revolutionCapital-money to invest inhelped Great Britain to lead labor, machines, and raw materials that is essential forthe Industrial Revolutionthe growth of industry Successful farming business By investing in growingallowed landowners toindustries, the aristocracy andinvest money in growingmiddle class had a goodindustries chance of making a profit Parliament encouraged Many displaced farmers investment by passing lawsbecame industrial workers; that helped the growing moved to urban areas. businesses The four factors of economics are: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship 9. Great Britain Leads the Way cont.Natural ResourcesLarge Labor SupplyBritains wealth included its In one century, Englandsrich supply of natural population nearly doubledresources Improvements in farming lead Water provided power for to increased availability ofdeveloping industries andtransported raw materialsfoodand finished goods better, more nutritious food Britain also had hugeled to people living longersupplies of coal, theand healthier livesprinciple raw material of Changes in farming lead tothe Industrial Revolutionincreased supply of industrial Produced iron and steel workers for machinery and helped to fuel industry Entrepreneurs-businesspeople who set up industries by bringing together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions 10. Why Britain Industrialized First 11. Enclosure Movement Open field system- system where British farmers hadplanted crops and kept livestock on unfenced privateand public lands for hundreds of years Landowners felt that larger farms with enclosed fieldswould increase farming efficiency and productivity Enclosure Movement-practice of fencing or enclosingcommon lands into individual holdings Parliament supported this and passed laws that allowedlandowners to take over and fence off private andcommon lands Many small farmers dependent on village lands wereforced to move to towns and cities to find work 12. Landowners practiced new, more efficientfarming methods To raise crop yields, they mixed different kinds of soil and used new crop rotationsystems Crop Rotation-the practice of alternatingcrops of different kinds to preserve soil fertility Charles Townshend- urged the growing of turnips toenrich exhausted soil Another reformer, Robert Bakewell, bred strongerhorses for farm work and fatter sheep and cattle for meat Jethro Tull- invented the seed drill that enabled farmers to plant seeds in orderly rows 13. Growing Textile IndustryAdvances in Machinery Producing More ClothJohn Kay- improved the loom with Edmund Cartwright-the flying shuttle developed the power loom to James Hargeaves- invented asolve the shortage of weaversmore efficient spinning machine The new inventions created acalled the spinning jennygrowing need for raw cotton Richard Arkwright-developed the (American) Eli Whitney-water frame-a huge spinningdeveloped the cotton gin thatmachine that ran continually oncleaned cotton 50 times fasterwaterpower than one person could Samuel Crompton- produce thespinning mule by combiningfeatures of the spinning jennyand the water frame 14. Flying shuttleWater Frame Spinning Jenny Power Loom Spinning MuleCotton Gin 15. The Factory System Factory System- organized method of production thatbrought workers and machines together under controlof managers Waterways powered machines and providedtransportation for raw materials and finished cloth As the factory system spread, manufacturers requiredmorepower than horses and watercould provide James Watt- designed an efficient steam engine* Steam engines allowedfactories that had to closedown when water froze orflowed too low to runcontinuously The steam engine enabledfactories to be built far fromwaterways 16. The first passenger carriage in Europe, 1830, George Stephensons steamlocomotive, Liverpool and Manchester Railway 17. Eli WhitneyEli Whitney designed and invented thecotton gin by April 1793. The cotton ginwas a machine that automated theseparation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber. He contributed to theconcept of interchangeable parts andincreased factory production. Theseinterchangeable parts were machine-made parts that were exactly alike andeasily assembled or exchanged. 18. Industrial Developments The use of factory machinery Water transportation alsoincreased demand for iron improved: in 1761, Britishand steel workers dug one of the firstmodern canals Henry Bessemer and William Soon, a canal building craze beganKelly-developed methods toin both Europe and the USinexpensively produce steelfrom iron A combination of steam powerand steel would soon At the same time, people worked revolutionize both land and waterto advanced transportationtransportationsystems throughout In 1801, Richard Trevithick firstEurope and the US brought steam-powered travel to Improvements began when land with a steam-poweredprivate companies began buildingcarriage that ran on wheels andand paving roadsthree years later, a steamlocomotive that ran on rails John McAdam and Thomas In 1807, Robert Fulton designedTelford- further advanced roadthe first practical steamboatmaking: Railroads and steamboats laid the better drainage systems and foundations for a global economy the use of layers of crushed rock and opened new forms ofinvestment 19. Religiousorganizationsprovided socialservices to the poor.The social gospelwas a movementthat urged Christiansto social service. 20. Many poor people lived in slums. They packed into tiny rooms intenements, multistory buildings divided into crowdedapartments. In the slums, there was no sewage or sanitationsystem, and waste and garbage rotted in the streets. Cholera andother diseases spread rapidly. 21. Modernizing JapanJapan didnt trade until 1853, when four American warships commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into the bay at Edo(present-day Tokyo).He wanted to trade with Japan and so they signed a treaty with Perry in 1854.Meiji RestorationFirst five years after Perry, shogun signed treaties with Britain, France, Holland, Russia, and the United States. Unhappiness of the treaties led to the overthrow of the shogun in 1868. A group of Samurai gave its allegiance to the new emperor, Mutsuhito, but kept the real power to themselves.Mutsuhito was known as the Meiji, or Enlightened emperor, Japans new rulers were called Meiji leaders. They Strengthened the Military, and worked to transform the nation into industrial society.They established a system of universaleducation designed to produce loyal,skilled citizens who worked forJapans modernization. 22. 2 The Industrial Revolution: Cause and Effect Immediate Effects Rise of factories Changes in transportation and communication Urbanization New methods of production Rise of urban working class Growth of reform movementsCausesLong-Term EffectsIncreased agricultural productivity Growth of labor unionsGrowing population Inexpensive new productsNew sources of energy, such as Spread of industrializationsteam and coal Rise of big businessGrowing demand for textiles and Expansion of public educationother mass-produced goods Expansion of middle classImproved technology Competition for world trade amongAvailable natural resources, labor,industrialized nationsand money Progress in medical careStrong, stable gov