Effects of ESOL Service- Learning Experience on Preservice Teachers Dr. Guichun Zong Dr. Alice W. Terry Kennesaw State University

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Effects of ESOL Service- Learning Experience on Preservice Teachers Dr. Guichun Zong Dr. Alice W. Terry Kennesaw State University </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> What is Service-Learning? an innovative teaching methodology that integrates community service with academic study to enrich learning, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities. National Commission on Service-Learning, 2002 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Description of Study 58 middle-grade-preservice teachers participated Performed 6-15 hours of tutoring to ELLs in elementary schools Worked with Cobb County Schools Data Collected Pre/Post survey 2-4 page formal reflection </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> ELLsEnglish Language Learners 8000+ ESOL students from 131 countries 81 Major Languages Mostly Hispanic students, many lacking native language literacy skills Cobb County School System </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Initial Research Questions What is the impact of the service-learning internship experience on middle grades TOSS preservice candidates concerning the knowledge about and attitudes toward ELL learners? How does the amount of time spent in the field experience impact the middle grades TOSS preservice candidates knowledge about ELL students, attitudes toward ELL students, and self-efficacy in teaching ELL students? </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Added Research Question: What is the effect of the experience on the English Language Learners (ELLs) in the schools? </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Quantitative Data: Overview Data Collection Survey Instrument 20 items Attitude, efficacy, and knowledge Pre-experience and post-experience survey Data Analysis Paired-sample T-tests </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Findings from Quantitative Analysis T-test results item by item (Handout) Directions of changes Expected Unexpected Significance of changes </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Knowledge-all gains in expected direction ELL students learn better if they are not allowed to use their native language at school2.71 2.78 Ell students should be expected to be fluent in English after one year of ELL Instruction.2.512.61 I dont know how to instruct-interact with an ELL student in my class. 3.622.99 * ESOL students should be put in special schools or classes until they have orally mastered the English language. 2.362.51 ____________________ *Statistically significant at.05 level. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Knowledge-gains that is statistically significant I dont know how to instruct-interact with an ELL student in my class. Mean SD Mean SDDifference p value 3.621.342.991.130.63.00* </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Efficacy-gain in expected direction I am confident as a teacher working with ELL students. Pretest Mean 3.40 Posttest Mean 3.61 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Attitudes: Changes in the Expected Directions Means Pre-testPost-test ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ It is necessary that all teachers modify their lesson plans for ELL students. 5.095.13 Adding ELL students to my class will increase my workload.4.734.71 ELLs should be proficient in speaking English before joining mainstream classrooms. 3.62 3.38 ELL students bring needed diversity to schools.5.045.27 It is the responsibility of ELL students to adapt to American culture and school life. 3.293.1 My first response to ELL students would be to give them separate work.3.143.13 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Attitudes: Changes confusing us Means Pre-testPost-test --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I am eager to teach English language learners.4.244.11 I would teach my subject to an exclusively ESOL class.3.352.94* I am likely to complete the ESOL endorsement. 3.513.31 ELLs should remain in separate ESOL track during their time at our school.2.33 2.69* If I have students in my classroom whose 1st language in not English, I will send him/her to the schools ESOL teacher. 3.143.52 * I dont think that our school system should allow ELL students to participate/attend unless they can speak/understand English. 2.052.2 ___________________________________________________________ *Statistically significant at.05 level. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Attitude: Changes that are statistically significant I would teach my subject to an exclusively ESOL class. ELLs should remain in separate ESOL track during their time at our school. If I have students in my classroom whose 1st language in not English, I will send him/her to the schools ESOL teacher. PretestSDPosttestSD p-value ________________________________________ 3.35 1.372.941.29.04 2.33.9042.691.27.04 3.141.143.521.21.05 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Emergent Themes Qualitative Results: Emergent Themes 1. Opened My Eyes 2. Stares at Ceiling 3. Through the Looking Glass </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Opened My Eyes Their eyes were opened As to how an elementary school operates To younger students To cultural aspects of schools To feeling what an ELL experiences To misconceptions concerning ELLs ELLs need to be validated To the need to help ELLs As to how frustrated teachers are in addressing the needs of ELLs </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Opened My Eyes Before: some thought ELLs should be immersed in English After: all conceded their minds had been changed School systems need more resources especially in regular classroom Best support system ELLs had was each other Misconception: believing students dont want to learn All recognized what a huge barrier language is in learning even if students speak English fluently </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Stares at Ceiling The ELLs would stare off at the ceiling, able to fade The most used English phrase of the ELLs, according to one participant, was, I dont know. I could see the blank stares on their faces. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Stares at Ceiling The students are frustrated with learning and the teachers. He [ELL] would tune out and turn off. [Enrico] didnt want to learn and nobody noticed. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Stares at Ceiling What happened when the participants began interacting with the ELLs is remarkable. Eyes left the ceiling and the ELLs warmed up, sharing enlightening conversations, lighting up when asked about their own culture. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Lewis Carrolls Through the Looking Glass There are many mirror themes, including opposites, time running backwards, general confusion. Alice ponders what the world is like on the other side of a mirror. She discovers a book with looking-glass poetry, "Jabberwocky," which she can read only by holding it up to a mirror.Jabberwocky </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> `Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe. According to Alice, Somehow it fills my head with ideasonly I dont exactly know what they are! </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Through the Looking Glass: What the TOSSers Saw The experience differed widely from school to school. Some TOSSers worked with the students in the regular classroom; some only in the ESOL classroom; some worked one on one with the students; others only were allowed to observe. Some worked with experienced tutors; others worked with inexperienced tutors. Some worked in schools with mostly Hispanic ELLs; others worked in schools with more diverse ELLs. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Through the Looking Glass: What the TOSSers Saw Tutors worked on vocabulary development-- point/flash cards (method). In schools with strong ESOL tutors, tutors provided connection to ELLs culture and helps ELLs adjust to challenges. Generally the TOSSers did not see much if any modification for students in regular classroom. They werent critical of the regular classroom teachers for the most part; they seemed to understand their frustration in dealing with the ELLs. No differentiation or culturally-responsive teaching strategies in classroom. Students were immersed in English in regular classroom </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Through the Looking Glass: What the TOSSers Felt The TOSSers feelings ran the gamut, from positive and worthwhile to frustrating and discouraged. One student related that she was torn over the experience. TOSSers felt frustrated on many levels: finding the time to do the experience; getting set up in the schools Nervous about how ELLs will succeed in their own classrooms one day. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Through the Looking Glass: What the TOSSers Felt On the positive side, TOSSers found the experience worthwhile and beneficial. They enjoyed interacting with the ELL students. The experience promoted empathy and compassion in the TOSSers. For the most part, the students felt sad about leaving at the end of the experience; they were sad for the ELLs and worried that they might not succeed. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Through the Looking Glass: Impact of Experience on TOSSer The experience had mainly a positive impact on the TOSSers For a few there were negative influences. Concern about not having an impact on the ELLs. Feeling unclear about the best way to teach ELLs Feeling unequipped to help the students. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Through the Looking Glass: Impact of Experience on TOSSer Expressions of having a positive impact were more prevalent. Will spend extra time helping ELLs More familiar with how to break down information for ELLs. Will modify things for ELLs Some planned to learn Spanish and become ESOL certified. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Through the Looking Glass: Impact of Experience on TOSSer Got over little kid phobia working with elementary students. Will incorporate culturally responsive things Positive about service-learning as a pedagogy. Feel overwhelmed but encouraged and hopeful that I can reach any student! </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Question: List a few things you know about ELL students Pre Survey Student 04 Response: They pick up oral language faster than written language Many live in homes where only one language is spoken Many are stereotyped (all Asians are smart, etc.) Post Survey Student 04 Response: ELL students are often frustrated in class ELL students are sometimes made fun of by their peers They have the hardest time writing in English They can often hear and speak English before they can write and read it They often have to translate questions/ directions in their head in their native tongue. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Question: List any strategies you know that can help ELLs in a classroom Pre Survey Student 35 Response: Using more diagrams or pictures that show step by step procedures Post Survey Student 35 Response: Explaining assignments to them one-on-one, rather than embarrassing them in front of the class Provide pictures and demonstrations to explain items more clearly </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Question: What factors do you think make an ELL ready to join mainstream classrooms? Pre Survey Student 10 Response: Some have ability to communicate the spoken and written language Desire and motivation to learn English Post Survey Student 10 Response: Passing certain ESOL checkpoints Improvement in English LA skills, i.e.. Spelling, speaking, writing, grammar Enthusiasm and desire to learn and improve Approval by ESOL supervisor teachers. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Quantitative Results </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> </ul>