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  • GIC Modeling SRWG Meeting

    March 2014

  • Introduction

    Terminology

    Theory

    GMD Impacts to Power System Equipment

    Historic Events

    Regulatory Activities

    Geomagnetic Induced Current Modeling

    GIC Study Tools

    GIC Modeling Data

    Challenges

    IPCO GIC Study Experiences

    SRWG Discussion Topics

  • Terminology

    CME = Coronal Mass Ejection

    GMD = Geomagnetic Disturbance

    GIC = Geomagnetically Induced Current

    HILF = High Impact Low Frequency Events

    Coordinated Cyber, Physical, and Blended Attacks

    Pandemics

    Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)

    Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI)

  • GMDs and the Power System

    DC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    GIC

    AC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    Powerflow Solar

    Flare CME

    Perturbation

    of Earths

    Magnetic

    Field

    nT/min

    Planetary Science

    Space

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    Maxwell

    Equations

    and Earth

    Conductivity

    () Model

    V/km

    Physics (E&M) Power Engineering

    Near Earths Surface

  • GMD Impact on Power System

    Equipment

    Transformer Half-Cycle Saturation

    Harmonics

    Increase Reactive Power Consumption

    Increased risk of system voltage collapse

    Transformer Heating

    Increased risk of transformer damage

    Protective Relaying Misoperation

    Harmonics / DC Offset due to GIC

    Electromechanical Relays

    Communication System Issues

  • October 31 - Sun storm causes problems for Swedish

    power system. The solar storm has caused technical

    glitches in Sweden's power system in the past few

    days and may be to blame for a blackout that affected

    50,000 people on Thursday, October 30.

    Information Notice No. 90-42: FAILURE OF ELECTRICAL POWER EQUIPMENT

    DUE TO SOLAR MAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

    Specific events occurred at the Three Mile Island Unit 1, Hope Creek Unit 1, and Salem Unit 1

    nuclear power plants. inspection of the generator

    step-up transformer severe overheating, melted

    low

    -voltage service connections in phases A and C,

    and insulation discoloration in phase B. On

    September 19, at Salem Unit 2 nuclear power

    plant, a second solar storm damaged the generator

    step-up transformer. Sep 1990

    Transformer exit-lead

    overheating

    Transformer winding failure

    Historic Events

  • GMD Regulatory Activities

    FERC Order 779

    Issued to NERC in May 16, 2013

    Directed NERC to develop reliability

    standards to address the potential impact of

    GMD Events on the reliable operation of

    the Bulk-Power System

    Directed Standards Development in Two

    Stages

    Stage 1 Standards

    Focus on GMD Operating Procedures

    Must be filed by January 2014

    Stage 2 Standards

    Focus on initial and on-going study

    assessments of benchmark GMD events

    Must be filed by January 2015

  • NERC Project 2013-03

    Geomagnetic Disturbance Mitigation

    Stage 1: NERC EOP-010-1 Geomagnetic Disturbance Operations

    NERC BOT adoption 11/7/2013

    Filed with FERC 11/14/2013

    Stage 2: NERC TPL-007-1 Transmission System Planned

    Performance During Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Standards Authorization Request (SAR) Completed

    Status = Active Formal Development

  • NERC EOP-010-1

    Applicable Entities

    Reliability Coordinator

    Transmission Operator with a Transmission Operator Area that includes a

    power transformer with a high side wye-grounded winding with terminal

    voltage greater than 200 kV

    Effective Date Timeline

    First day of the first calendar quarter that is six months after applicable

    approvals (i.e. FERC, NERC BOT, etc.)

    Requires TOPs to develop, maintain, and implement GMD

    Operating Procedures to mitigate the effects of GMD events

  • NERC TPL-007-1

    FERC Order 779 Requirements

    Initial and on-going assessments of the risk and potential impact of

    benchmark GMD events on the Bulk-Power System

    Identification of benchmark GMD events

    Develop and implement action plans to protect against instability,

    uncontrolled separation, or cascading caused by GMD events

    Proposed Effective Date Timeline

    Implementation Period was not addressed in Order 779

    Potential Impact to SRWG

    May need to develop GIC Modeling and Data Reporting Requirements

  • GIC Modeling

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    Qloss_GIC, IGIC QV

    PV DC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    GIC

    AC

    Network

    Grid

    Model

    Powerflow

    Qloss_GIC

    Contingency

    Analysis Transient

    Stability

    E&M DC Network Model AC Network Model

    Equivalent Circuit

    Substation

    Transmission Line

    Transformer

  • Transmission Lines

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    DC Voltage Source

    Transmission Line GIC Model

    LY

    SUB 1

    (Lat A, Long A)

    SUB 2

    (Lat B, Long B)

    Ex

    EY

    Lx

    System Voltage

    Level

    (kV)

    DC Resistance

    (ohm/km)

    230 0.072

    345 0.037

    500 0.013

    735 0.011

  • Series Capacitors

    Transmission Lines with Series Capacitors

    Block GIC Current from flowing

    Image: Idaho Power

  • Caution Regarding Series Capacitors

    Line Shunts can form GIC circuits

  • Transformers

    Transformer GIC Model

    Image: 2012 NERC GMDTF Interim Report

    Winding Configuration Winding Resistance

    Core Type

  • Substations

    Typical Network Resistance Values

    Image: Advanced Grounding Concepts

    Grounding Resistance Measurement

    Fall of Potential Test Method

    System

    Voltage Level

    (kV)

    Grounding

    Resistance of

    Substation

    (ohms)

    230 0.563

    345 0.667

    500 0.125

    735 0.258

    Substation GIC Model

    Rgnd

  • GIC Study Tools

    General Electric Positive Sequence Load Flow (GE PSLF)

    GIC add-on module available in GE PSLF V18.1_02

    Latitude / Longitude in bus record table

    Four New tables for Substation, secddg table, trang table, e-field table

    Siemens Power System Simulator for Engineering (PSSE)

    GIC add-on module available in Versions 32.2 and 33.3

    Input data via auxiliary text file *.GIC file or GIC module GUI

    PowerWorld Simulator V17

    GIC add-on module available

    Input data via auxiliary text file or GIC Add-on Analysis Dialog

    Calculation Methods are based on NERC GMD Task Force

    Recommendations

    Default values for some GIC data if unknown

  • GIC Modeling Data

    GIC Modeling Data on an wide area basis

    Powerflow Network

    Latitude / Longitude of Substations

    Substation Grounding Resistance

    Transformer Connections

    Transformer DC Winding Resistance

    Status of GIC Blocking Devices

    Equipment Specific GIC Modeling Data

    Transformer Core Construction

    Transformer Saturation Coefficient (K-Factor)

  • Challenges

    GMD has more impact on Northern Portion of the Interconnection

    Defining GIC Data Reporting Requirements

    All of WECC?

    Portions of WECC?

    All elements of the Bulk-Power System (BPS)?

    Portions of the BPS?

    Transmission Lines 200kV and above?

    Transformers with HV grounded-wye windings 200 kV and above?

    Additional details are needed in order to completely define new data

    reporting requirements

    GIC Data Conversion between Software Packages

    PSLF, PSS/E, PowerWorld have different input data requirements

  • Needs

    GIC studies should be performed using Wide Area Models

    GIC Data needs to be available and shared between Entities

    GIC Blocking in one Area impacts GIC currents in adjacent Areas

    Whack-a-Mole

  • IPCO GMD Study Experiences

    DC GIC Analysis

    Uniform Electric Field

    AC Powerflow Analysis with GIC

    Wide Area

    Idaho Area

    N-1 Contingency Analysis with GIC

    Idaho Area

    Reactive Margin Analysis with GIC

    Idaho Area Buses

    Northwest Area Buses

    Idaho Area Bus Voltage Impact with GIC

    Wide Area

    Idaho Area

  • DC GIC Study Results

    Transformer GIC MVAR Loss

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    0 30 60 90 120 150 180

    MV

    AR

    Compass Angle (degrees)

    Idaho Area MVAR Loss due to GIC

    7 V/km 4 V/km

  • Wide Area AC Powerflow Results

    Direction Electric Field Magnitude (V/km)

    where Powerflow fails to solve

    0 degrees 7.4

    15 degrees 7.0

    30 degrees 6.6

    45 degrees 5.6

    60 degrees 5.2

    75 degrees 5.1

    90 degrees 4.0

    105 degrees 4.4

    120 degrees 4.8

    135 degrees 4.8

    150 degrees 4.8

    165 degrees 8.4

    180 degrees 7.4

  • Wide Area AC Powerflow Results

    (Excluding Idaho Area)

    Compass

    Ang