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  • 1. Googling to the MaxHow to do better searches usingyour favorite search engine.1

2. Todays Goals To learn How Google really works. How to construct better searches. How to use Googles advancedsearching feature And to explore some of the newestGoogle features2 3. Google Corporate Background Googles mission is to organize the worldsinformation and make it universallyaccessible and useful. Googles founders Larry Page and SergeyBrin developed Google in a StanfordUniversity dorm room and it is currently theworlds largest search engine. "Googol" is the mathematical term for a 1followed by 100 zeros. Source: http://www.google.com/corporate/ 3 4. How Google Finds New Pages Google has special programscalled spiders (a.k.a. Googlebots) that constantly searchthe Internet looking for newor updated Web pages. When a spider finds a new orupdated page, it reads thatentire page, reports back toGoogle, and then visits all ofthe other pages to which thatnew page links.Image source: http://www.disobey.com/4 5. Paging Miss Muffet When the spider reports back toGoogle, it doesnt just tell Google thenew or updated pages URL. The spider also sends Google acomplete copy of the entire Web page HTML, text, images, etc. Google then adds that page and all ofits content to Googles cache.5 6. So What? When you search Google, youre actuallysearching Googles cache of Web pages. And because of this, you can search formore than text or phrases in the body of aWeb page. Google has some secret, advanced searchoperators that let you search specific partsof Web pages or specific types ofinformation. Source: Google Hacks,6p. 5 7. How Google works When you search for multiple keywords,Google first searches for all of yourkeywords as a phrase. So, if your keywords are disneyfantasyland pirates, any pages onwhich those words appear as a phrasereceive a score of X. 7 8. How Google Works - Adjacency Google thenmeasures theadjacency betweenyour keywords andgives those pagesa score of Y. What does thismean in English?Well Image source: Google Source: Google Hacks, p. 21 8 9. How Adjacency WorksA page that saysMy favorite Disney attraction, outside ofFantasyland, is Pirates of the Caribbeanwill receive a higher adjacency score than apage that says Walt Disney was a both a genius and ataskmaster. The team at WDI spent manysleepless nights designing Fantasyland. Butnothing could compare to the amount ofImagineering work required to create Piratesof the Caribbean. 9 10. How Google Works - Weights Then, Google measures the numberof times your keywords appear on thepage (the keywords weights) andgives those pages a score of Z. A page that has the word disney fourtimes, fantasyland three times, andpirates seven times would receive ahigher weights score than a page thatonly has those words once.Source: Google Hacks, p. 2110 11. Putting it All Together Google takes The phrase hits (the Xs), The adjacency hits (the Ys), The weights hits (the Zs), and About 100 other secret variables Throws out everything but the top 2,000 Multiplies each remaining pages individualscore by its PageRank And, finally, displays the top 1,000 inorder.11 12. PageRankPageRank? There is a premise in higher education thatthe importance of a research article can bejudged by the number of citations to it fromsubsequent articles in the same field. Google applies this premise to the Web: theimportance of a Web page can be judged bythe number of hyperlinks pointing to it fromother pages. Google Toolbars PageRank icon indicatesthe relative importance of the page.Source: Google Hacks, p. 29412 13. All Search Engines useBoolean Search Strategy aANDb adisney AND pirates b cc OR d dfantasyland OR adventurelandb NOTd cpirates NOT fantasylandb 13 14. Googles Boolean Default is AND If you search for more than one keyword ata time, Google will automatically search forpages that contain ALL of your keywords. A search for disney fantasyland piratesis the same as searching for disney ANDfantasyland AND pirates But, if you try to use AND on your own,Google yells at you:The "AND" operator is unnecessary -- weinclude all search terms by default.Source: http://www.google.com/help/basics.html 14 15. Phrases To search for a phrase, put it in quotes. For example, disney fantasylandpirates of the caribbean This would show you all the pages in Googlesindex that contain the word disney AND theword fantasyland AND the phrase pirates ofthe caribbean (without the quotes) By the way, while this search is technicallyperfect, the choice of keywords contains a(deliberate) factual mistake.Can you spot it? Source: http://www.google.com/help/refinesearch.html15 16. Tharr, She Blows! Pirates of the Caribbean isnt in Fantasyland, its in Adventureland in Orlando and New Orleans Square in Anaheim. So searching for disney AND fantasyland AND pirates of the caribbean probably isnt a good idea. Image source: http://www.balgavy.at/16 17. Boolean OR Sometimes the default AND gets in the way. Thats where OR comes in. The Boolean operator OR is always in allcaps and goes between keywords. For example, an improvement over ourearlier search would be disneyfantasyland OR pirates of thecaribbean This would show you all the pages in Googlesindex that contain the word Disney AND theword fantasyland OR the phrase pirates ofthe caribbean (without the quotes)Source: http://www.google.com/help/refinesearch.html 17 18. Three Ways to OR at Google Just type OR between keywords disney fantasyland OR pirates of thecaribbean Put your OR statement in parentheses disney (fantasyland OR pirates of thecaribbean) Use the | (pipe) character in place of theword OR disney (fantasyland | pirates of thecaribbean) All three methods yield the exact sameresults.Source: Google Hacks, p. 3 18 19. OR, She Blows! Just remember, Googles Boolean default is AND Sometimes the default AND gets in the way. Thats where OR comes in. Image source: http://www.phil-sears.com/19 20. Other Google searching Google wont accept more than 10keywords at a time. Searching is not case sensitive. Google doesnt support stemming.(stem*) or truncation.Source: Google Hacks, 20 19p. 21. How Google Works When you conducta search at Google,it searches for Phrases, then Adjacency, then Weights. Because Googlesearches forphrases first, theorder of your Image source: Googlekeywords matters.Source: Google Hacks, p. 20-22 21 22. For ExampleA search for disneyfantasylandpirates yields thesame number of hitsas a search forfantasyland disneypirates, but theorder of those hits especially the first 10 is noticeablydifferent.22 23. Knowledge is Power Those who understand how Googleworks can manipulate the endresults. Type miserable failure and hit Imfeeling lucky button. This is called Google bombing. Linda J. Goff - Fall 2005 - 23 http://library.csus.edu 24. Part Two: In Summary Googles Boolean default is AND. Capitalization does not matter. Google has a hard limit of 10keywords. Google doesnt support truncation orstemming. The order of your keywords matters.Linda J. Goff - Fall 2005 - 24http://library.csus.edu 25. Part Three:Advanced SearchingUsing Advanced SearchGoogle Services and Google Tools 25 26. 26 27. Google Tools 27 28. Google Services28 29. Google Web Search Features 29 30. Google Print Google has made deals with publishers to make new books searchable online. Search link to books containing your search terms, as well as other information about the title. Click one of the links under "Buy this Book" and youll go straight to a bookstore selling that book online. Source:http://msnbc.msn.com/id/9785346/site/newsweek/ 30 31. Googles Digital Library Google has made a deal with largelibraries to scan thousands of out ofprint library books to put them online. Association of American Publishers (AAP),has sued in federal court to stop Google. Publishers charge that by making electroniccopies, the search giant is committingmassive copyright infringement. We still recommend using real books!Source: http://msnbc.msn.com/id/9785346/site/newsweek/ 31 32. So lets give it a try Open http://google.com 32