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Intercultural Communication. Unit 1 / Week 6. Academic/Work – cultural values in discourse and behaviour. Formality: Politeness, respect, power. Honorifics and Polite Forms. Japanese Ki- masi -ta ‘come-POLITE-PAST’ Ki-ta ‘come-PAST’ (‘came’) unmarked French - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Intercultural Communication

Unit 1 / Week 6

Academic/Work cultural values in discourse and behaviour

Formality: Politeness, respect, power

Honorifics and Polite FormsJapaneseKi-masi-ta come-POLITE-PASTKi-ta come-PAST (came) unmarkedFrenchVous venez you are coming unmarkedTu viens you are coming marked singular-familiar

A form used to show deference to an addressee.4DiscussionHow many English forms of address can you think of? Formal: Mr, Mrs, Ms, Miss, .Informal: mate, .When are these different forms used and by whom?

Formal: Sir, Madam, Dr, Prof, Your Grace, Your Majesty, Your Royal Highness, My Lord, Your Honour, Mr President, .Informal: mate, bruv, darling, babe, Anthony, Tony, schmuck, idiot features, .5DiscussionIn a language other than English, what are the different ways of addressing people.Does the language have different words for you?What titles would you use to address different people?When are these different forms of address used and by whom?

6Formality scaleQuirk et al. (1985), who use the term attitude rather than style or register.

Very formal, Frozen, Rigid FORMALNeutralINFORMAL Very informal, Casual, FamiliarMartin Joos (1961) The Five Clocks

Martin Joos (1961) The Five ClocksIntimateCasualConsultativeFormal Frozen

Martin Joos wrote a book called "The 5 Clocks" where he talked about five registers. Joos said there were five main registers, based on formality. Joos' book was written in response to the idea of only two styles in diglossia (H and L) or ideas that there were two ways of speaking (Correctly and Incorrectly). He believed that there were 5 styles of English usage: intimate, casual, consultative, formal and frozen. (Even that is probably very limited).He admitted that it was possible to shift from one style to another during any piece of discourse, but that speakers/writers never shifted more than one level - unless for a joke.

9FrozenPrinted unchanging language such as bible quotationsoften contains archaisms

FormalOne-way participationno interruptionTechnical vocabulary"Fussy semantics" or exact definitions are importantIncludes introductions between strangers.

ConsultativeTwo-way participation. Background information is providedprior knowledge is not assumed."Backchannel behaviour" such as "uh huh", "I see", etc. is common. Interruptions allowed.

CasualIn-group friends and acquaintances. No background information provided. Ellipsis and slang common. Interruptions common.

IntimateNon-public. Intonation more important than wording or grammar. Private vocabulary.

Tenor: Register as formality scale

FrozenSilence is observed in the library at all times.FormalKindly keep quiet, Miss Fidditch!ConsultativeYoure not allowed to talk in the library.CasualHush, Jane!IntimateShh, darling!(After Martin Joos 1961)Personal and Functional TenorPersonal tenorSocial roles of participantsStatus relationshipPersonalitiesFormalityFamiliarityTechnicality

Functional tenorSocial function of an utteranceIdentifying the purpose of the utterancedescriptiondirectionsrequestetc.

Gregory (1967: 184 ff.); Gregory & Carroll (1978: 53 ff.)Cf. Morley (1985: 48); Butler (1985: 88).Halliday treats such distinctions within the mode of discourse.

16Functional TenorPurpose of discourseTransactional visit to a bankA:Next, please.(offer of service)B:Can I take out 50, please?(request)A:How would you like it?(question)B:Four tens and two fives, please.(response)B:Thank you.(thanks)Cate Poynton (1985)Cate Poynton has suggested that Tenor can be broken down into 3 different continua: Power Affective involvement ContactIn other words, the general notion of role relationships can be seen as a complex of three simultaneous dimensions.

18Powerequalunequal19This continuum positions situations in terms of whether the roles we are playing are of equal or unequal power.For example:Equal powerFriendsUnequal powerBoss and employeeContactfrequentoccasional20This continuum positions situations in terms of whether the roles that we are playing bring us into frequent contact.For example:The frequent contact between spousesThe occasional contact between distant acquaintancesAffective Involvementhighlow21In this continuum, situations are positioned according to whether the roles are those in which the affective involvement between the participants is high or low.For example:Friends or lovers are affectively involvedWork associates are typically not affectively involvedFormal vs. Informal SituationsInformalFormalequal powerunequal, hierarchic powerfrequent contactinfrequent, or one-off contacthigh affective involvementlow affective involvementFor example: Close friendsMeeting between 1st-year student and Vice-Chancellor

22Attitudinal LexisUsed in informal situationsfantastic, shitty, unbelievableExpresses positive / negative evaluationPurr and snarl wordsFormal situationsKeep our attitudes to ourselvesOr express them in apparently objective language: unfortunate, surprising

Attitudinal LexisInformal situationSlang and abbreviated forms: chockiesFew politeness expressionsSwearing common place

Formal situationComplete lexical items: chocolatesPoliteness expressions: please, thank you, youre welcomeSwearing is taboo

Attitudinal LexisVocativesSir John!Mr. Smith!John!Johnno!Darl!Idiot Features!

When power is equal, vocative

25Vocatives

equalunequalPOWERVocative use is reciprocalVocative use is non-reciprocalVocatives

frequentoccasionalCONTACTNicknamesJohnno, Pete, ShirlOften no vocatives at allthe clerk at the post-office,the bus driverVocatives

highlowAFFECTIVE INVOLVEMENTDiminutive formsTerms of endearmentGeorgie-Porgie, Petie-Pie,Honey Bunch,DarlGiven namesPeter,SuzanneDiscussionRead the article, Bus drivers told to cut 'babe' greetingDiscuss:Why might some passengers take offence at being called love, darling or babe?Why do you think that a bus driver would choose to address a passenger as love, darling or babe?

CompareHey, Freddie! Get off your butt and give me a hand here. Shove that chair over closer to the desk.Oh, Dr Smith. Im just trying to tidy my office up a bit and I wondered if youd mind maybe giving me a quick hand with moving some furniture? If youve got time, I mean. It wont take a moment. Now if we could just move this chair over a bit nearer to the desk there. Thanks very much.

VocativesHey, Freddie! Get off your butt and give me a hand here. Shove that chair over closer to the desk.Oh, Dr Smith. Im just trying to tidy my office up a bit and I wondered if youd mind maybe giving me a quick hand with moving some furniture? If youve got time, I mean. It wont take a moment. Now if we could just move this chair over a bit nearer to the desk there. Thanks very much.

Use/Avoidance of SlangHey, Freddie! Get off your butt and give me a hand here. Shove that chair over closer to the desk.Oh, Dr Smith. Im just trying to tidy my office up a bit and I wondered if youd mind maybe giving me a quick hand with moving some furniture? If youve got time, I mean. It wont take a moment. Now if we could just move this chair over a bit nearer to the desk there. Thanks very much.

Use of Politeness PhenomenaHey, Freddie! Get off your butt and give me a hand here. Shove that chair over closer to the desk.Oh, Dr Smith. Im just trying to tidy my office up a bit and I wondered if youd mind maybe giving me a quick hand with moving some furniture? If youve got time, I mean. It wont take a moment. Now if we could just move this chair over a bit nearer to the desk there. Thanks very much.

Imperative MoodHey, Freddie! Get off your butt and give me a hand here. Shove that chair over closer to the desk.Oh, Dr Smith. Im just trying to tidy my office up a bit and I wondered if youd mind maybe giving me a quick hand with moving some furniture? If youve got time, I mean. It wont take a moment. Now if we could just move this chair over a bit nearer to the desk there. Thanks very much.

Modulation/Attenuation of the RequestHey, Freddie! Get off your butt and give me a hand here. Shove that chair over closer to the desk.Oh, Dr Smith. Im just trying to tidy my office up a bit and I wondered if youd mind maybe giving me a quick hand with moving some furniture? If youve got time, I mean. It wont take a moment. Now if we could just move this chair over a bit nearer to the desk there. Thanks very much.

Grammatical Metaphor

Get off your butt and give me a hand here.I wondered if youd mind maybe giving me a quick handShove that chair over closer to the desk.Now if we could just move this chair over a bit nearer to the desk there.ReferencesEggins, Suzanne (1994) An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics London : Pinter. Gregory, M. (1967) Aspects of varieties Differentiation Journal of Linguistics III 177-98)Gregory, M. & S. Carroll (1978) Language and Situation: Language Varieties and their Social Contexts Routledge & Kegan Paul.Joos, Martin (1961) The Five Clocks New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Poynton, Cate (1985) Language and Gender: Making the Difference Geelong: Vic.: Deakin University Press.

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