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    Final presentation:

    Online communication

    A theoreticalapproach onnonverbal communication of

    virtualhumans in CAVEAutomatic VirtualEnvironments.

    Emotions and interactionIntermediary 2

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    Final presentation:

    Online communication

    Agenda

    Actualstate of work

    RQ1

    Examples

    2

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    Final presentation:

    Online communication

    Where to?

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    (Final Fantasy, themovie)

    Happiness?

    Fear?

    Surprise?

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    Final presentation:

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    State of work

    RQ1: Howcanthesevenemotionsberepresentedfrom an anatomical

    perspective at thelevel of thewholebody (proportions, intensity)?

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    Visual representationz

    Face

    Body

    (Owndepiction)

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    Final presentation:

    Online communication

    Definitions

    Different perspectives on emotions

    - e.g.Darwin, James, cognitivetheory

    Componentialtheory of emotions (Scherer, 1982/2005)

    >

    5

    Definitions. Components

    Emotions vs. otherphenomena

    Components Examples

    Intentionality (-) Feelingcold(Leventhal&Scherer, 1987)

    Cognitive/Evaluation (-) Reflexes

    Somatic/motorcorelates (-) Attitudes(Lang, 1985; Scherer, 2005)

    Neutral state Neutral state

    Duration, intensity, target Moods

    >100 definitions

    (Kleinginna&Klienginna, 1981)

    (adaptedfrom Moors, 2010)

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    Final presentation:

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    Definitions

    Componentialtheory of emotions

    Emotion isdefined as an episode of interrelated,

    synchronizedchanges in thestates of all ormost of

    thefiveorganismicsubsystems in response to theevaluation of an

    externalorinternalstimulusevent as relevant to majorconcerns oftheorganism (Scherer, 1987/2001, in Scherer, 2005).

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    response

    external

    Definitions. Components

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    Components

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    Definitions. Components

    Scherer, 2005)

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    Components

    Internalvsexternaldimension

    - focus on theexternalmanifestation

    4 different generaltheoreticalperspectives

    1. Darwinian

    2. Jamesian

    3. Cognitive4. Socialconstructivist (Cornelius, 2000)

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    Darwinian

    Definitions. Components

    Jamesian

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    Final presentation:

    Online communication

    Basic emotions

    Emotions as buildingblocks of emotional life (Moors, 2010)

    Uniquephysiologicalresponsepattern(Ekman, Levenson&Friesen, 1983)

    Uniquefacialresponsepattern(Ekman, 1984)

    Emotion description

    Common subjectivelanguage

    Words such as happy, disgusted

    Behaviouralterms as in psychology and ethology Hitting, biting, runningaway, growling, crying, vomiting(Plutchik, 1982)

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    Characteristics

    All facialemotionsareinvoluntary

    Themuscularactioncanbevolutnarilydamnpened

    7 classes of information:

    Antecedents

    Thoughts

    Internalstate

    Ametaphor

    Theverynextintention of theexpresser

    Whattheexpresserwantstheperceiver to do Emotion word(Ekman, 1993)

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    Basic emotions

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    Plutchikspostulates

    Emotionshave an evolutionaryhistory and haveevolvedvariousforms of

    expression in different species

    Despite different forms of expression of emotions in different species,

    therearecertaincommonelements, orprototypepatterns, thatcanbeidentified.

    Thereis a smallnumber of basic, primary, orprototypeemotions(Plutchik, n.a.)

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    Basic emotions

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    Examples

    Facialmuscularbasis

    Action Units introduction

    Examples of emotions

    Body level

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    Facialmuscularbasis

    16 mimicalmuscles

    Do not to contribute to themotion of thejoints

    Positionedundertheskin and movingtheskin(Lippert, Herbold&Lippert-Burmester, 2010)

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    Examples

    Expression muscles

    Nucleus, Medical media

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    Facialmuscularbasis

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    Names and locations of facialareas and parts

    FACS, Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2002, p. 3)

    Examples

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    Facialmuscularbasis

    Theaction of themusclesdeterminescertainfacialmovements.

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    Examples

    Example of terms to describetheapperancechanges in thelip and otherfeatures

    FACS, Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2002)

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    Action Units - introduction

    IntroducedbyEkman, Friesen & Hager in theFacialAction Coding System

    Action Units (AUs) [...]

    representthemuscularactivitythatproducesmomentarychanges in

    facialappearance (Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2002).

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    Examples

    Upper face AUs Lower face AUs

    Specificelements Specificunits

    Eyebrows Up/Downs

    Forehead Horizontals

    Eyelids Obliques

    Orbitals

    Miscelanneous

    FACS, Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2002)

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    Upper faceAUs

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    Examples

    FA S, Ek an, Friesen ager, 2002)

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    Upper faceAUs

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    Examples

    FACS, Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2002, p.21)

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    Online communication

    Lower faceAUs

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    Examples

    FACS, Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2002, p. 103)

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    Lower faceAUs

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    Examples

    FACS, Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2002, p.95)

    Disgust

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    Final presentation:

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    Body level

    Rule of thumb

    World of warcraft 210 comandsfor emotions: 44 animated, 114 nonanimated(online source)

    E.g.

    Anger occurswhenachievement of goals arefrustrated.

    Neck and/or face is red orflushed.

    Baring of teeth and snarling.

    Clenchedfists. Leaningforward and invasion of bodyspace.

    Other aggressive bodylanguage.

    Use of power bodylanguage. (online source)

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    Design dimensions

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    SocialenvironmentReal time performance

    Establishment of

    appropriatesocialexpectations

    Selfmotivatedinteraction

    Regulation of interactions

    Readablesocialcues

    Interpretation of humans cues

    Competentbehavior in a

    complexworld

    Believablebehavior

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    Final presentation:

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    What

    Perspectives

    Definitions

    Components

    Models

    Where

    Face

    Body

    How

    Valence

    Intensity

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    Final presentation:

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    Design

    Reconstructionfrom 2-D photoorvideo

    sequence

    (Magnenat-Thalmann&Thalmann, 2004, p. 20)

    Reconstructionispossibleforthesimulation of

    basicemotionsbutisnotenough.

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