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  • Slide 1
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Slide 2
  • The Bodys Organization Each level represents a different compartment Cells Tissues Organs Organelles Organism
  • Slide 3
  • Major Evolutionary Events in the Origin of Life Primordial Soup First Cells Prokaryotes the animation of matter 3.5 bya Eukaryotic Cells 1.7 bya Multicellular Organisms 700-500 mya
  • Slide 4
  • Eubacteria Archaebacteria Animal Fungi Plant Protist Common ancestor Domains: Kingdoms: EubacteriaArchaeaEukarya
  • Slide 5
  • Introduction to Plants Based on weight, plants are the dominant group of organisms on land. This is called biomass. Most plants are photosynthetic. They produce organic materials from inorganic materials by photosynthesis. A few plant species live as parasites. Many parasitic plants cannot photosynthesize.
  • Slide 6
  • Importance of Plants Asthetics Medicine Food Industrial products Recreation Air quality Water quality Climate Fish and wildlife habitats Ecosystem
  • Slide 7
  • Introduction to Plants Plants probably evolved from multicellular aquatic green algae that could not survive on land. Through mutations and natural selection, plants changed enough and some survived. (Evolutionary viewpoint) Multicellularity enabled plants to develop features that helped them live more successfully on land.
  • Slide 8
  • Introduction to Plants Before plants could thrive on land, they had to be able to: Absorb nutrients from their surroundings. Prevent their bodies from drying out. Reproduce without water to transmit sperm.
  • Slide 9
  • Absorbing Nutrients On land, most plants take nutrients from the soil with their roots. Fungi have helped land plants to get nutrients from Earths rocky surface. Symbiotic relationships referred to as mutualism between fungi and the roots of plants are called mycorrhizae. Today, about 80% of all plant species form mycorrhizae.
  • Slide 10
  • Preventing Water Loss The first plants lived at the edges of bodies of water, where drying out was not a problem. A watertight covering, which reduces water loss, made it possible for plants to live in drier habitats. This covering, called the cuticle, is a waxy layer that covers the non-woody aboveground parts of most plants.
  • Slide 11
  • Preventing Water Loss The cuticle does not let oxygen or carbon dioxide pass through it. Pores called stomata permit plants to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Stomata extend through the cuticle and the outer layer of cells (epidermis). A pair of guard cells border each stoma. Stomata open and close as the guard cells change shape.
  • Slide 12
  • Preventing Water Loss
  • Slide 13
  • Reproducing on Land Aquatic algae reproduce sexually when sperm swim through the water and fertilize eggs. The sperm of most plants must be able to move without water. In most plants, sperm are enclosed in a structure (pollen) that keeps them from drying out. Pollen permits the sperm of most plants to be carried by wind or animals rather than water.
  • Slide 14
  • Four Types of Plant Tissue A growing plant is like building a house!
  • Slide 15
  • Building a House 1.Foundation is laid 2.Construction of the frame 3.Installation of plumbing, heating, etc 4.Waterproof walls and roof 5.Food stored in appropriate places Building a plant 1.Meristems give rise to all tissues 2.Three tissue systems give rise to the major organs of a plant 3.Installation of the vascular tissue (plumbing) 4.Installation of dermal tissues covering, skin 5.Installation of ground tissue parenchyma
  • Slide 16
  • Meristematic Tissue Meristems are regions of cell division Main difference between animals and plants Birds and mammals stop growing at maturity, although certain cells get replenished (skin) Plants have the ability to keep growing their entire lives Meristems make it possible to grow a new plant from a cutting Growth in plants is the counterpart (to some extent) to movement in animals
  • Slide 17
  • Epidermis stoma, trichomes, & root hairs http://www.ucd.ie/botany/Steer/hair/roothairs.html
  • Slide 18
  • Illustration from: http://biology.nebrwesleyan.edu/benham/mitosis/ 1.Interphase 2.Prophase 3.Metaphase 4.Anaphase 5.Telophase 6.Cytokinesis Cell Division: Mitosis (nuclear division) + Cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division)
  • Slide 19
  • Vascular Tissue, Seeds and Flowers One of the most important structures in plants is the conducting tissues that move water and other materials through the plant body. Without these structures, plants would remain very small.
  • Slide 20
  • Advantages of Conducting Tissue Some plants are small. Materials are transported within their bodies by osmosis and diffusion. Specialized cells that transport water and other materials within a plant are found in vascular tissues. The existence of vascular tissue allows for larger and more complex plants.
  • Slide 21
  • Advantages of Conducting Tissue The larger, more complex plants have a vascular system. A system of well-developed vascular tissue that distributes materials more efficiently. Three groups of plants alive today lack a vascular system. These plants are called nonvascular plants. Plants that have a vascular system are called vascular plants.
  • Slide 22
  • Advantages of Seeds A seed is a structure that contains the embryo of a plant. An embryo is an early stage in the development of plants and animals. Most plants living today are seed plants. Vascular plants that produce seeds.
  • Slide 23
  • Advantages of Seeds Protection Seeds are surrounded by a protective cover called the seed coat. The seed coat protects the embryo from drying out and from mechanical injury and disease. Nourishment Most kinds of seeds have a supply of nutrients stored in them. These nutrients are a ready source of nourishment for a plant embryo as it starts to grow.
  • Slide 24
  • Advantages of Seeds Plant Dispersal Seeds disperse (spread) the offspring of seed plants. Many seeds have structures that help wind, water, or animals carry them away from their parent plant. Dispersal prevents competition for water, nutrients, light, and living space between parents and offspring.
  • Slide 25
  • Advantages of Seeds Delayed Growth The embryo in a seed is in a state of suspended animation. Most seeds will not sprout until conditions are favorable. Such as when moisture is present and the weather is warm. Seeds make it possible for plant embryos to survive through unfavorable periods such as droughts or cold winters.
  • Slide 26
  • Advantages of Flowers The flower is a reproductive structure that produces pollen and seeds. Most plants living today are flowering plants seed plants that produce flowers. The pollen of the first seed plants are believed by evolutionists to be carried by wind. Large amounts of pollen are needed to ensure cross-pollination by wind an inefficient system.
  • Slide 27
  • Advantages of Flowers Many flowers attract animals, such as insects, bats, and birds. Tiny pollen grains stick to animals, which carry pollen directly from one flower to another. Flowering plants that are pollinated by animals produce less pollen, and cross-pollination can occur between individuals that live far apart.
  • Slide 28
  • Plant Life Cycles Plants have life cycles in which haploid plants that make gametes (gametophytes) alternate with diploid plants that make spores (sporophytes). A life cycle in which a gametophyte alternates with a sporophyte is called alternation of generations.
  • Slide 29
  • Alternation of Generations
  • Slide 30
  • Vascular-Plant Sporophyte Vascular System Larger bodies require an efficient vascular system for transporting materials internally. The sporophytes of vascular plants have two types of vascular tissue. Each type of vascular tissue contains strands of long, tube like cells that are lined up end to end like sections of pipe. These strands of cells transport water and nutrients within a plants body.
  • Slide 31
  • Vascular-Plant Sporophyte Soft-walled cells transport organic nutrients in a tissue called phloem. Hard-walled cells transport water and mineral nutrients in a tissue called xylem. The walls of the water-conducting cells in xylem are thickened, which helps support the plant body. This makes it possible for vascular plants to grow to great heights.
  • Slide 32
  • Vascular-Plant Sporophyte
  • Slide 33
  • Distinctive Body Form Nearly all plants have a body that consists of a vertical shaft from which specialized structures branch. The part of a plants body that grows mostly upward is called the shoot. In most plants, the part of the body that grows downward is called the root.
  • Slide 34
  • Vascular-Plant Sporophyte Zones of actively dividing plant cells, called meristems, produce plant growth. The vertical form of the plant body results as new cells are made at the tips of the plant body.
  • Slide 35
  • Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Vascular without Seeds Vascular with Seeds
  • Slide 36
  • Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Vascular without Seeds Vascular with Seeds
  • Slide 37
  • Nonvascular Plants Nonvascular plants do not have a vascular system for transporting water and other nutrients within their bodies. All nonvascular plants lack true roots, stems, and leaves. Although most have structures that resemble them.
  • Slide 38
  • Features of Nonvascular Plants Require Water for Sexual Reproduction Nonvascular plants must be covered by a film of water in order for fertilization to occur. Eggs and sperm form in separate structures, which are often on separate plants. The gametophytes grow in mats tightly covered by a film of water; sperm can easily swim to neighboring individuals and fertilize their eggs.
  • Slide 39
  • Classification of Nonvascular Plants Bryophytes Small with leaflike, stemlike, and rootlike structures. Mosses usually only grow to 1 inch. Disseminated by spores: mosses, liverworts, hornworts Mosses Bryophyta Liverwort Hepatophyta Hornwort Anthocerophyta
  • Slide 40
  • Bryophyte Reproduction
  • Slide 41
  • Mosses and Medicine Moss has been used as an antiseptic for centuries. In World War I, moss was used to treat soldiers wounds in emergency situations. The antiseptic qualities result from moss natural absorbency and acidity.
  • Slide 42
  • Mistaken for Mosses A variety of plants and plantlike organisms are mistakenly called mosses. Irish moss is a red alga. Spanish moss is a flowering vascular plant. Reindeer moss is a lichen.
  • Slide 43
  • Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Vascular without Seeds Vascular with Seeds
  • Slide 44
  • Seedless Vascular Plants
  • Slide 45
  • Features of Seedless Vascular Plants Vascular System Have both xylem and phloem. The water-conducting cells in the xylem are reinforced with lignin, a major part of wood. Lignin bonds with cellulose to make a sturdy, strong cell walls. Because of their vascular system, they grow much larger than nonvascular plants and also develop true roots, stems, and leaves.
  • Slide 46
  • Classification of Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns Phylum Pterophyta are the most common and most familiar seedless vascular plants. Ferns grow throughout the world, but they are most abundant in the tropics. The plants that are recognized as ferns are sporophytes.
  • Slide 47
  • Reproduction of Seedless Vascular Plants Most fern sporophytes have rhizomes that are anchored by roots and leaves called fronds. The coiled young leaves of a fern are called fiddleheads. Spores are produced in sporangia that grow in clumps called Sori sori on the lower side of fronds. Sori The gametophytes of ferns are flatted, heart- shaped green plants that are usually less than 1 cm across.
  • Slide 48
  • Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Vascular without Seeds Vascular with Seeds Gymnosperms Angiosperms
  • Slide 49
  • Gymnosperms Seed plants whose seeds do not develop within a sealed container (a fruit). The word comes from the Greek words gymnos, meaning naked, and sperma, meaning seed.
  • Slide 50
  • Features of Gymnosperms Seeds All gymnosperms produce seeds. Seeds protect plant embryos, provide them with nutrients, and permit them to survive long periods of unfavorable conditions. In some plants, seeds also disperse new plants far from their parents.
  • Slide 51
  • Features of Gymnosperms Greatly Reduced Gametophytes All seed plants produce very tiny gametophytes of two types. Male and female. The gametophytes form within the tissues of the sporophytes. Grains of pollen are male gametophytes. Female gametophytes form within structures that become seeds. In all but one species of gymnosperm, male and female gametophytes develop in male and female cones.
  • Slide 52
  • Features of Gymnosperms Wind Pollination The sperm of gymnosperms do not swim through water to reach and fertilize eggs. Instead, the sperm are carried to the structures that contain eggs by pollen, which can drift on the wind. Wind pollination makes sexual reproduction possible even when conditions are very dry.
  • Slide 53
  • Kinds of Gymnosperms Conifers Phylum Coniferophyta are the most familiar and most successful gymnosperms. Conifers have leaves that are either needle-like or reduced to tiny scales. These leaves are an adaption for limiting water loss.
  • Slide 54
  • Kinds of Gymnosperms Some of the tallest living plants, the redwoods of coastal California and Oregon are conifers. The oldest trees in the world are thought to be bristlecone pines, a species of conifer that grows in the Rocky Mountains and Great Basin. Some bristlecone pines are about 5,000 years old. Vast forests of conifers grow in cool, dry regions of the world.
  • Slide 55
  • Kinds of Gymnosperms Cycads Phylum Cycadophyta have short stems and palm-like leaves. Cones that produce pollen and those that produce seeds develop on different plants. Cycads are widespread throughout the tropics.
  • Slide 56
  • Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Vascular without Seeds Vascular with Seeds Gymnosperms Angiosperms
  • Slide 57
  • Angiosperms Most seed plants are flowering plants or angiosperms. Angiosperms produce seeds that develop enclosed within a specialized structure called a fruit. The word comes from the Greek words angeion, meaning case, and sperma, meaning seed.
  • Slide 58
  • Features of Angiosperms Flowers The male and female gametophytes of angiosperms develop within flowers which promote pollination and fertilization more efficiently than do cones. Some flowers, such as roses, are brightly colored or have strong scents. This attracts insects and other animals that carry pollen and increases the likelihood of crosspollination, which often occurs before the flowers open.
  • Slide 59
  • Features of Angiosperms Fruits Although fruits provide some protection for developing seeds, their primary function is to promote seed dispersal. The angiosperms produce many different types of fruits, which develop from parts of flowers. Many fruits are eaten by animals and pass undigested from the animals bodies. Other fruits have structures that help them float on wind or water. Some fruits even forcefully eject their seeds, flinging them away from the parent plant.
  • Slide 60
  • Kinds of Angiosperms Botanists divide the angiosperms into two subgroups, monocots and dicots. The monocots are flowering plants that produce seeds with one seed leaf (cotyledon). Most monocots also produce flowers with parts that are in multiples of three and have long, narrow leaves with parallel veins.
  • Slide 61
  • Kinds of Angiosperms The dicots are flowering plants that produce seeds with two seed leaves, dicotyledons. Most dicots also produce flowers with parts in multiples of two, four, or five and have leaves with branching veins.
  • Slide 62
  • Slide 63
  • Familiar Families of Angiosperms SubgroupFamilyExamples Monocots (class Monocotyledonae) Iridaceae (Iris) Irises, gladiolus, crocus Liliaceae (Lily) Daylilies, tulips, asparagus, aloe vera Poaceae (Grass) Wheat, corn, rice, lawn grasses Dicots (class Dicotyledonae) Asteraceae (Aster) Daisies, sunflowers, lettuce, ragweed Brassicaceae (Mustard) Broccoli, cauliflower, turnips, cabbage Fabaceae (Legume) Beans, clovers, peas, peanuts, soybeans Rosaceae (Rose) Roses, apples, peaches, pears, plums Solanaceae (Nightshade) Potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, petunias
  • Slide 64
  • Plants as Food Humans depend on plants in many ways. Plants store the extra nutrients they make or absorb in their bodies. Plant parts contain organic nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and minerals (calcium, magnesium, and iron). All types of plant parts roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds are eaten as food.
  • Slide 65
  • Fruits and Vegetables To a botanist, a fruit is the part of a plant that contains seeds. A vegetative part is any nonreproductive part of a plant. The foods that you think of as fruits (such as apples, bananas, and melons) are also fruits in the botanical sense. Vegetables that contain seeds are fruits in the botanical sense such as cucumbers or tomatoes. Fruits and vegetables provide dietary fiber and are important sources of essential vitamins and minerals.
  • Slide 66
  • Potatoes are an important food staple in many parts of the world. Rich in calories and easy to grow, potatoes are an ideal crop for a small farm. They are classified as root crops because they grow underground. Potatoes are actually tubers, modified underground stems that store starch. Yams, an essential food crop in many tropical parts of the world, are roots. Sweet Potatoes, carrots, radishes, turnips, beets, and cassava are important root crops. These vegetables are enlarged roots that store starch. Root Crops
  • Slide 67
  • Legumes Many members of the pea family, which are called legumes, produce protein-rich seeds in long pods. About 45% of a soybean, the most important legume grown for food, is protein. Soybeans are often cooked and pressed into cakes called tofu. Peas, peanuts, and the many different types of beans are the seeds of legumes. Alfalfa, which is fed to livestock, is another important legume. Like many legumes, alfalfa has nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which add nitrogen compounds to the soil, in its roots. Alfalfa is also grown to enrich the soil.
  • Slide 68
  • Student handout ends at this point; however, the following slides will be presented during a plant lab.
  • Slide 69
  • Cereals Cereals are grasses that are grown as food for humans and livestock. Cereal grasses produce large numbers of type of edible, dry fruit called a grain. A grain contains a single seed with a large supply of endosperm. Each grain develops from a flower. The flowers of cereal grasses form in tightly packed clusters of many individual flowers.
  • Slide 70
  • Cereals A grain is covered by a dry, papery husk called the bran, which includes the wall of the ovary and the seed coat. Cereal grains are rich in carbohydrates and also contain protein, vitamins, and dietary fiber. More than 70% of the worlds cultivated farmland is used for growing cereal grains. More than half of the calories that humans consume come from just three cereal grasses: wheat, corn, and rice.
  • Slide 71
  • Wheat For more than 1/3 of the worlds population, wheat is the primary source of food. The endosperm of wheat grains, which is high in carbohydrates, is commonly ground into white flour and used to make breads and pasta. Vitamin-rich wheat germ consists of the embryos of wheat grains. Whole-wheat flour consists of the endosperm plus the germ and bran layers.
  • Slide 72
  • Wheat Wheat grains are not always ground into flour. In the Middle East, wheat grains are often boiled or soaked, dried and then pounded until they crack. Most wheat is grown in temperate regions that have fertile soil and moderate rainfall. One of the worlds best wheat-growing areas is the Great Plains region of the US and Canada.
  • Slide 73
  • Corn Corn is the most widely cultivated crop in the US. American colonists of the 1600s and 1700s first learned how to grow corn from Native Americans. In the southeastern US, corn was more widely grown than wheat, which does not grow as well in hot climates. Foods that are made from corn include corn bread, corn pone, hominy, and grits.
  • Slide 74
  • Corn About 70% of the corn crop harvested in the US is consumed by livestock. Other uses for corn include the production of corn syrup, margarine, corn oil, cornstarch, and fuel-grade ethanol. Most of the corn grown in the US today comes from a region known as the Corn Belt, which includes Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Illinois, and Indiana.
  • Slide 75
  • Rice For more than half of the people in the world, rice is the main part of every meal. Although it is low in protein, rice is an excellent source of energy rich carbohydrates. While brown rice still has its vitamin-rich bran layers, white rice has been processed to remove the bran layers. This processing helps to prevent spoilage in stored rice. In societies where people eat mainly rice, vitamin-rich sauces such as soy sauce are often added to white rice to make meals more nutritious.
  • Slide 76
  • Rice The white rice you buy at a grocery store is enriched with added vitamins. Rice is often added to processed foods such as breakfast cereal, soup, baby food, and flour. In the US, rice is grown in central California, in the Southeast, and along the Gulf Coast in fields.
  • Slide 77
  • Nonfood Uses of Plants Wood After food, wood is the single most valuable resource obtained from plants. Many products such as furniture, buildings, boats, cabinets, and violins are made from wood. The wood from trees that have been cut down and sawed into boards, is called lumber. Nearly 75% of the lumber cut in the US is used for building construction. The rest is used to make products that contain wood, or it is ground and moistened to make wood pulp. Wood pulp is made into paper, rayon, and many other products. For more than a quarter of the worlds people, wood is still the main source of fuel for heating and cooking.
  • Slide 78
  • Nonfood Uses of Plants Medicines By studying the plants traditionally used to treat human ailments, researchers have developed many modern medicines. NameSourceAction CaffeineTea leavesActs as a stimulant CodeinePoppy fruitsRelieves pain CortisoneYam tubersRelieves symptoms of allergies DigitalisFoxglove leavesStabilizes irregular heartbeats and treats cardiac disorders EphedrineEphedra stemsActs as a decongestant SalixBark of willow treesRelieves aches and pains (aspirin) TaxolYew tree barkReduces the size of cancerous tumors
  • Slide 79
  • Nonfood Uses of Plants Fibers Fibers are strands of cellulose, which is a component of the cell walls of plants. In plants, fibers help provide support for plant body. The strength and flexibility of plant fibers make them ideal materials for making paper, cloth, and rope. Most of the fibers used to make paper come from wood. Paper-making fibers are also obtained from many other plants, including cotton, flax, rice, bamboo, and papyrus.
  • Slide 80
  • Nonfood Uses of Plants For centuries, people have made clothing with cloth made of cotton, the worlds most important plant fiber. White fibers fill up the inside of a cotton boll, the fruit of the cotton plant. Cotton thread is spun from the fine white fibers, which grow on cotton seeds. The stems of flax yield softer, more durable fibers that are used to make linen. More than 30% of the worlds clothing is now made of synthetic fibers, but natural plant fibers are still prized for their durability and comfort. Sturdy fibers of hemp and sisal plants are used to make rope.