marc21 bibliographic record
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DESCRIPTIONMARC21 Bibliographic Record. What is a MARC Record?. A MARC record is a MA chine- R eadable C ataloging record. And what is a machine- readable cataloging record?. Machine-readable. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
What is a MARC Record?A MARC record is a MAchine-Readable Cataloging record.
And what is a machine- readable cataloging record?
Machine-readableMachine-readable means that one particular type of machine, a computer, can read and interpret the data in the cataloging record.
Cataloging Record"Cataloging record" means a bibliographic record , or the information traditionally shown on a catalog card. The record includes (not necessarily in this order):1) a description of the item2) main entry and added entries3) subject headings4) the classification or call number. (MARC records often contain much additional information.)
Bibliographic RecordBIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD: A catalog entry in card, microtext, machine-readable, or other form carrying full cataloging information for a given item in a library. Surrogate for the itemMust facilitate functions of the catalog
Bibliographic RecordDESCRIPTION: Identifying the item
ACCESS POINTS: Collocation; identifying the work
Bibliographic RecordDESCRIPTION OF ITEM: IDENTIFYING THE OBJECTTITLESTATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITYEDITIONPLACE, PUBLISHER, DATEPHYSICAL DESCRIPTIONSERIESNOTESSTANDARD NUMBER; TERMS OF AVAILABILITY
Bibliographic RecordCOLLOCATION: IDENTIFYING THE WORKACCESS POINTSAUTHORTITLEEDITORSERIESOTHER RELATEDSUBJECT HEADINGSCLASSIFICATION
History of MARCNUC and LC Card Distribution ServiceInitial study for tape distribution began in 1964At first the service was English monographs only.Eventually formats for many other types of material and over 130 roman alphabet languages plus many non-roman languagesMARC was intended to be a communications format for the exchange of bibliographic information on tape.
History of MARCOriginated at the Library of Congress (LC) in 1965 as a part--probably the single most important part--of the beginnings of library automation in the U.S. and elsewhere.LC settled in 1968 on a form of computerized recording of cataloging information, the MARC II recordThis is the foundation of the current record, called MARC 21, which is essentially the MARC II record with some added features.
History of MARCMARC standard variantsMARC 21OCLC-MARCFive MARC formatsBibliographicAuthorityHoldingsClassificationCommunity information
DescriptionLibrarians follow the rules in Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 2002 revision (popularly known as AACR2) to compose the bibliographic description of a library item.This "description" is shown in the paragraph sections of a card. It includes the title, statement of responsibility, edition, material specific details, publication information, physical description, series, notes, and standard numbers.
Main Entry and Added EntriesAACR2 also contains rules for determining "access points" to the record (usually referred to as the "main entry" and "other added entries"), and the form these access points should takeAccess points are the retrieval points in the library catalog where patrons should be able to look up the item.
Main Entry and Added Entries (cont.)In other words, the rules in AACR2 are used to answer questions such as: For this book, should there be entries in the catalog for more than one author or more than one title? Should the title of the series be noted? How should the author's name be written? Is this a "title main entry" item (no author)?
Subject Headings (Subject Added Entries)The librarian uses the Sears List of Subject Headings (Sears), the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), or some other list of standard subject headings to select the subjects under which the item will be listedUse of an approved list is important for consistency, to ensure that all items on a particular subject are found under the same heading and therefore in the same place in the catalog.
Subject Headings (cont.)For instance, the subject heading list indicates that all books about cats should be assigned the subject CATS. Using this authorized heading eliminates the possibility of listing some books under CATS and others under FELINES. Even if a book is called All About Felines, the subject heading will be typed CATS. That way, all books on that subject will be listed in one place in the catalog for the patron to find. The patron does not have to imagine all the possible synonyms for the word he is looking for.
Call NumberThe librarian uses a Dewey Decimal or Library of Congress classification schedule to select the call number for an itemThe purpose of the call number is to place items on the same subject together on the same shelf in the libraryMost items are subarranged alphabetically by author. The second part of the call number usually represents the author's name, facilitating this subarrangement.
Why Is a MARC Record Necessary?Why can't a computer just read a catalog card? The information from a catalog card cannot simply be typed into a computer to produce an automated catalog. The computer needs a means of interpreting the information found on a cataloging record. The MARC record contains a guide to its data, or little signposts," before each piece of bibliographic information.
Record with Textual SignpostsSIGNPOSTSMain entry, personal name with a single surnameTitle and statement of responsibilityTitle ProperStatement of responsibilityDATAChute, Marchette Gaylord, 1909-
Stories from Shakespeare /Marchette Chute
Record with Textual SignpostsSIGNPOSTSPublicationPlace of publicationName of publisherDate of publicationPhysical descriptionPaginationIllustrative matterSize
New York :Meridian,1976 (1993 printing)
319 p. ;
Record with Textual SignpostsSIGNPOSTSNote AreaGeneral noteStandard numbersSubject added entriesPersonal author subject
Includes index.ISBN 0-452-01061-6
Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616--Adaptations.English drama--Early modern, 1500-1700--Adaptations
Record with Textual SignpostsSIGNPOSTS
Call Number (LC)Call Number (Dewey)
LC Card Number
PR2877 .C53 1993822.33
Same Record with MARC TagsSIGNPOSTS100 1#|a|d245 10|a|c260|a |b|c
DATAChute, Marchette Gaylord, 1909-Stories from Shakespeare /Marchette Chute.New York :Meridian,c1976.
Same Record with MARC TagsSIGNPOSTS300|a|c500|a600 10 |a|d|vDATA319 p. ;21 cm.Includes index.Shakespeare, William,1564-1616Adaptations
Same Record with MARC TagsSIGNPOSTS650 0|a|y|v010|a020|a090|a|b092 |a
DATAEnglish dramaEarly modern, 1500-1700Adaptations93-333720452010616PR2877.C53 1993822.33
Type: a ELvl: Srce: Audn: Ctrl: Lang: eng
BLvl: m Form: Conf: 0 Biog: MRec: Ctry: nyu
Cont: GPub: LitF: 1 Indx: 1
Desc: a Ills: Fest: 0 DtSt: r Dates: 1993,1976
040 DLC c DLC
020 0452010616 : c $9.95 ($12.99 Can.)
050 10 PR2877 b .C53 1993
082 00 823/.52 2 20
100 1 Chute, Marchette Gaylord, d 1909-
245 10 Stories from Shakespeare / c Marchette Chute.
260 New York : b Meridian, c c1976 (1993 printing)
300 319 p. ; c 21 cm.
500 Includes index.
600 10 Shakespeare, William, d 1564-1616 v Adaptations.
650 0 English drama y Early modern and Elizabethan, 1500-1600 v Adaptations.
MARC Terms and Their Definitions
MARC Terms This section covers how to read, understand, and use a MARC record. It deals with what librarians using a library automation system will see and need to understand on their computer screens when adding, editing, or examining records.
MARC Terms (cont)The emphasis will be on those areas commonly used in cataloging books and audiovisual materials. However, what is covered in this section applies equally to all forms of materials, including sound recordings, computer software, maps, and other non-book items.
MARC Terms (cont)Format Integration" means that the same "signposts" are used to mark data in records for all types of publications, rather than having different sets of "signposts" for each type. More technically, under Format Integration, one group of tags is used for records of all types of materials rather than having a tag set defined for each type.
MARC Terms (cont)The box chart in the previous section showed a MARC record labeled with "signposts." The proper names of these "signposts" are field, tag, indicator, subfield, subfield code, and content designator. These MARC 21 terms are covered in this section.
MARC Terms (cont)In the MARC record, 10% of the tags are used over and over, and the other 90% are seen only occasionally or rarely. After even a short exposure to the MARC 21format, it is not unusual to hear librarians speaking in "MARCese."Librarians who work with MARC records soon memorize the numbers for the fields common to the materials they catalog.
FIELDS are marked by TAGSField: Each bibliographic record is divided logically into fields. There is a field for the author, a field for title information, and so on. These fields are subdivided into one or more "subfields." The textual names of the fields are too lengthy to be reproduced within each MARC record.
FIELDS are marked by TAGSField (cont.): Instead they are represented by 3-digit tags. (Though on-line catalogs may display the names of the fields, the names are supplied by the system softwa