marketing management: advertising, sales promotion, publicity etc

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Marketing Management: Advertising, Sales Promotion, Publicity Etc


  • AdvertisingIt is a paid form of a non personal presentation of an idea, goods or services by an identified sponsor to reach out maximum no .of audiences.

    The mass media would include print media, direct mail, audio visual media, boards, hoardings etc.

    Advertising is used when sponsors want to communicate with a no. of people who cannot be reached economically and effectively through personal selling.

  • Benefits of AdvertisingCreates AwarenessCreates InterestReinforcement because the message is repeated.Increases salesHelps in creating the demandThe company can protect its market share or position by responding to the competitors strategy.Cokes punchline in 1996 was The official softdrink of the world cupPepsi said Nothing Official About it.

  • Benefits of AdvertisingCan reach many customers simultaneously. i.e. it has a mass appeal.Excellent for creating brand image.High degree of flexibility and variety of media to choose from.Can accomplish different types of promotion objectives.

    DemeritsMany consumers reached are not potential buyersAdvertising is often quickly and easily screened out by consumers.Adds can be expensive and dramatize the concept.

  • Developing the Advertising MessageA successful advertising message should have the following:Meaning: Message should be relevant, it should be meaningful.Distinctive: UniqueBelievable: Convince the customers about the product.

  • Developing an advertising ProgrammeIdentify Target AudienceTarget could be mass markets. Ex SoapsAdvertisements of high priced products ex cars should be directed towards status consious, high income group customers.Objectives Of Advertising CampaignThe objective of advertising campaign is to achieve a specific communication task for a specific target audience during a specific period of time.

  • Inform:Its existing and potential customersCommunicate benefits of productsInform about services offeredInform of Price ChangeCorrect the false impression about the product/company.PersuadeSpecial offersDiscountsPersonal visitsEncourage switch overs

  • RemindRemind for futureRemind Buyers from where to buyRetain Product in customers perception.Creating EmotionsAdvertisements try to create an emotional bond.Generate effective response from the brand using emotions, moods, feelings, love and compassion.Ex Cadbury Humour Appeal- Cherry Blossom, Charlie Chaplin Fear Appeal-Saffola , LIC adsSatire and Cartoons: Kit Kat, Amul

  • Sales promotion means any steps that are taken for the purpose of obtaining or increasing sales.

    These are incentives that are offered by a firm to the buyers.

    Each of these incentives is designed to achieve a specific action such as purchase, or a store visit or an inquiry about a product or service.

  • To add value, to add visibility to normal selling, to add motivation to the routine selling we conduct sales promotion activities.

    To increase the impact and visibility of advertising, we add certain incentives to it and so we say that sales promotion co-ordinates with advertisements.

  • Print AdvertisementsIt comprises of the headline, the body copy and the Illustrations.Readers first see the illustration, then read the headline and then the body copy. An advertisement should follow the same sequence.The headline might promise a benefit, deliver news, offer a service or identify a problem.The headline or illustration should contain the brand name. The advertiser should get the message across by means of a strong headline.The message should be in customers language.

  • The illustration can tell a story to the reader. Use characters that the customers can identify, emphasize on the product, its packaging, showing the results of the product usage.Long paragraphs and long sentences should be avoided.

  • TV CommercialsTV Commercials are of short durations.TV Commercials use a benefit approach where advertising would suggest a reason for the customer to buy.The second approach is subtle the intension is to involve the viewer by telling a story.Third is salience advertising- with the assumption that advertising which stands out as being different will cause brand to stand out.There are Humorous Advertisements.Advertisements show product demonstrations.Advertisements that compare the advertised product with those of competitors are less believable and more confusing. A single branded advertisement is preferred.

  • Advertisements show the product providing solutions to a common problem.If the company employs some novel process to make the product, the customers get influenced.Advertisements which contain news are above average in changing customers brand preferences.Advertisements with emotions and sentiments are effective particularly when there is nothing very unique to say about the product.Cartoons sell products to children.

  • Making Television Advertising more effectiveBrand Name: The name of the brand should be advertised in the advertisement. The name should appear within first ten seconds and should be repeated as often as possible.

    Package: Advertisements which end by showing the package are more effective in changing brand preference.

    Appetizing Food: In advertisement of foods, the more appetizing the product looks the more it sells.

    Close ups: The closer the look of the product the better it is.

  • Making Television Advertising more effectiveEmphatic opening: If the advertisement grabs attention in the first frame, it has a better chance of holding the viewer.Customers see many advertisements but remember only the once with unique visual impact.Product in use: It is useful to show the product being used and if possible the end result of using it.The advertisement should state its message very clearly.

  • Celebrity EndorsementsCelebrity endorsements should be planned.

    Celebrity values and personality must match those of the brand.

    People look up and watch the advertisements even of an unknown brand when a familiar face of a celebrity pops on the television screen.

    A celebrity has immense potential to shape the brand identity because of peoples inclination to believe them.

    The celebrity has to be attached with the brand for a long time since the persona of the celebrity has to be transferred to the brand.

  • Celebrity EndorsementsIt is important that celebrity is not associated with other brands that are projecting values and personalities that are in conflict with the brand in question. If it happens customers get confused about personalities and values of both the brands.

    Instant Brand Awareness and Recall.

    Brands acquire images from the type of people who are seen using them.

    Images of prestige or success are imbibed when brands are associated with glamorous personalities.

  • Celebrity EndorsementsCelebrities alone do not guarantee success. People realize that celebrities are being paid a lot of money for endorsements and this knowledge makes them cynical about celebrity endorsements.

    Ensures attention: Ensures the attention of the targeted group by making the ad and the brand more noticible.

  • Mitigating a tarnished image: Cadbury India wanted to restore the consumer's confidence in its chocolate brands following the high-pitch worms controversy; so the company appointed Amitabh Bachchan for the job. when the even more controversial pesticide issue shook up Coca-Cola and PepsiCo and resulted in much negative press, both soft drink majors put out high-profile damage control ad films featuring their best and most expensive celebrities. The celebrities ensured the safety of the product to the consumers.

  • Psychographic Connect: Celebrities are loved and adored by their fans and advertisers capitalize on their feelings.Demographic Connect: Different stars appeal differently to various demographic segments (age, gender, class).Rejuvenating a stagnant brand: With the objective of infusing fresh life into the stagnant chyawanprash category and facing competition from various brands, Dabur India roped in Bachchan.

  • Disadvantages of a celebrity endorsing a brand:Sometimes the celebrity might overshadow the brand.The audience will remember the celebrity and not the brand.Celebrities endorsing one brand and using another.Mismatch between the celebrity and the image of the brand

  • Celebritys fit with the brand image. CelebrityTarget audience match Celebrity associated values. Costs of acquiring the celebrity. CelebrityProduct match. Celebrity controversy risk. Celebrity popularity. Celebrity availability.Celebrity prior endorsements. Whether celebrity is a brand user. Celebrity profession.

  • Sales PromotionAccording to American Marketing Association:- In specific sense, sales promotion includes those sales activities that supplement both personal selling and advertising and co-ordinate them and make them effective such as displays, shows, demonstrations and other non-current selling efforts not in the ordinary routine.Objectives and Functions of Sales Promotion:Encourage customers to try new products.Example : Free SamplingEncourage customers to use products and make them brand loyal.

  • Objectives and Functions of Sales PromotionTo influence the customers to purchase the product or service instantly because sales promotion time is very limited and if the customers do not respond to it quickly, they may lose the offer.To encourage the middlemen to buy and store more units of the products by offering them incentives for bulk purchases.To motivate the salesman to participate in the work.To encourage off season purchases.Unloading Accumulated inventory.

  • Types of Sales PromotionsConsumer/ Customer Sales PromotionTarget

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