measurement and financial analysis
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- 1. Chapter 5: Supply Chain Performance Measurement and Financial Analysis Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Understand the scope and importance of supply chain performance measurement. Explain the characteristics of good performance measures. Discuss the various methods used to measure supply chain costs, service, profit, and revenue. Understand the basics of an income statement and a balance sheet. Demonstrate the impacts of supply chain strategies on the income statement, balance sheet, profitability, and return on investment. Understand the use of the strategic profit model. Analyze the financial impacts of supply chain service failures. Utilize spreadsheet computer software to analyze the financial implications of supply chain decisions.
2. Introduction: The purpose of this chapter is to: (1) introduce the dimensions of supply chain performance metrics, (2) discuss how supply chain metrics are developed, (3) offer some methods for classifying supply chain metrics, and (4) use quantitative tools to show how these metrics can be linked to the financial performance of the organization. 3. Questions about a metric: Is it quantitative? Is it easy to understand? Does it encourage appropriate behavior? Is the metric visible? Does the metric encompass both outputs and inputs? 4. Questions about a metric: Does it measure only what is important? Is it multidimensional? Does the process use economies of effort? Does it facilitate trust? 5. Figure 5-2 What Supplier Performance Metrics Do Companies Use? On-time delivery 90% Quality of goods/services 83% Service capability/performance 69% Price competitiveness 55% Compliance with contract terms 51% Response 50% Lead time 44% Technical capability 34% Environmental, health, and safety performance 30% Innovation 29% Source: Logistics Management (January 2006) 6. Supply Chain Performance Metrics The focus upon a least total cost system requires measuring the tradeoff costs when a suggested change is made in one of the components or elements of the system. Cost has long been recognized as an important metric for determining efficiency. The important point to remember is that successful supply chain performance measurement relies on appropriate metrics that capture the entire essence of the supply chain process. 7. Developing Supply Chain Performance Metrics The development of a metrics program should be the result of a team effort. Second, involve customers and suppliers, where appropriate, in the metrics development process Develop a tiered structure for the metrics Identify metric owners and tie metric goal achievement to an individuals or divisions performance evaluation. 8. Developing Supply Chain Performance Metrics Establish a procedure to mitigate conflicts arising from metric development and implementation. establish a procedure to mitigate conflicts arising from metric development and implementation. establish top management support for the development of a supply chain metrics program 9. Performance Categories Four major categories: time, quality, cost, and supporting metrics. 10. Supply Chain Council Developed The Supply Chain Operations and Reference (SCOR) Model The metrics categories used to measure the performance of Process D1: Deliver Stocked Product five major categories of metrics reliability responsiveness flexibility cost assets 11. Order cycle time (OCT) Once an expected order cycle time is established for customers, service failures can be measured. OCT influences product availability, customer inventories, and sellers cash flow and profit. 12. The Supply ChainFinance Connection Focusing attention on the supply chain is a means to improving financial performance. Cost of providing logistics service affects the marketability of the product and impacts profitability. Financing inventory affects the amount of capital required to fund the inventory. 13. The RevenueCost Savings Connection 14. The Supply Chain Financial Impact A major financial objective for any organization is to produce a satisfactory return for stockholders. The absolute size of the profit must be considered in relation to the stockholders net investment, or net worth. An organizations financial performance is also judged by the profit it generates in relationship to the assets utilized, or return on assets (ROA). The supply chain plays a critical role in determining the level of profitability in an organization. 15. ROA An organizations financial performance is also judged by the profit it generates in relationship to the assets utilized, or return on assets (ROA). The supply chain plays a critical role in determining the level of profitability in an organization. The level of inventory owned by an organization in its supply chain determines the assets, or capital, devoted to inventory. 16. Supply Chain Service Financial Implications The results of supply chain service failures are added to the cost to correct the problem and lost sales. When service failures occur, some customers experiencing the service failure will request that the orders be corrected and others will refuse the orders. The refused orders represent lost sales revenue that must be deducted from total sales. For the rectified orders, the customers might request an invoice deduction to compensate them for any inconvenience or added costs. 17. Figure 5-19 Supply Chain Service Failure Annual orders Rehandling cost 18. Summary Performance measurement for logistics systems, and especially for supply chains, is necessary but challenging because of their complexity and scope. Certain characteristics should be incorporated into good metricsbe quantitative, be easy to understand, involve employee input, and have economies of effort. Important guidelines for metric development for logistics and supply chains include consistency with corporate strategy, focus on customer needs, careful selection and prioritization of metrics, focus on processes, use of a balance approach, and use of technology to improve measurement effectiveness. 19. Summary (cont.) There are four principal categories for performance metrics: time, quality, cost, and miscellaneous or support. Another classification for logistics and supply chains suggests the following categories for metrics: operations cost, service, revenue or value, and channel satisfaction. The equivalent sales increase for supply chain cost saving is found by dividing the cost saving by the organizations profit margin. Supply chain management impacts ROA via decisions regarding channel structure management, inventory management, order management, and transportation management. 20. Summary (cont.) Alternative supply chain decisions should be made in light of the financial implications to net income, ROA, and ROE. The SPM shows the relationship of sales, costs, assets, and equity; it can trace the financial impact of a change in any one of these financial elements. Supply chain service failures result in lost sales and rehandling costs. The financial impact of modifications to supply chain service can be analyzed using the SPM.