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OAT AND BARLEY Submitted By Zeeshan Ali Haider. 15-Arid-4441

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OAT AND BARLEY

OAT AND BARLEYSubmitted ByZeeshan Ali Haider.15-Arid-4441

OATGeneral CharacteristicsOat is an important Cereal crop

Annual fodder

Rabbi crop

Temperate climate

Scientific name: Avena Sativa.

ContinueIt is One of the most important feed sources of

livestock and animal in the world

Rich in nutrients and essential mineralsCommon Name: Oat (English), Jai (Urdu), Jodra (Punjabi), Javi (Saraiki).Other Names: Hafer (German), ma-karasu-mugi (Japanese), avena (Spanish).

Morphology of plant Stem:-Erect and ascending.40-180cm in length.Soft.Nodes of stem are swollen and internodes are hollow.Stem tufted or clustered.

Oat Stem

LeafIts leaves are cauline (arise from the upper part of stem).The leaves blade are 14-40 cm long.Oat has veined rough broad leaf.Leaf sheath is smooth and glabrous. Short awns and hairy lemmas

Leaf

Oat seed Seed is Monocot

Varieties(ARRI, Faisalabad) PalestineFatuaAlgerianWeston-11DN-8(NARC, Islamabad)AvonSargodha-81S-2000NARC-OatS-2011

Sowing and HarvestingIt is sown from October to December.

Oat crop will become available for harvesting after 4 months of sowing.

For fodder purpose two cuttings are taken at 40 days interval.

Harvesting for grain is done in early April before the plant is dead ripe, to avoid shedding of grain.

YieldWhen grown only for grain purpose 16-20 qt grain and 25-30 qt straw/ha.

When grown as fodder the yield is about 200-300 qt fodder and 4-5 qts of grain/ha.

1Quintal=100kg11

Uses cereal, a feed grain green or conserved fodderCommonly fed to horses and ruminants due to its excellent nutritional qualities that aid with maintaining optimal rumen and hindgut functionOat grass used for medicine purposeAlso used as an excellent skin cleanser.Oat straw herbal can also improve mental function

Top producing countries Country Thousand metric tonsRussia4,027Canada2,680Poland1,439Finland1,159World Total20,732

Nutritional ValuesMoisture 82.8% Dry Matter 17.2% Crude Fiber 23%Crude Protein 13.5% NFE 47.3% Fat (EE) 2.9% Ash 13.3%

LossesWhen oat is fed as main forage then Grass tetany, and, in some cases, milk fever, can occur in cattle

High producing cows are susceptible, but dry cows and bulls are rarely affected

Prevention of this disease is through supplementation of magnesium oxide and limestone with ration

Anti-nutrition factorsNitrate poisoning occur in oat

There is more accumulation of nitrate pois0ning then other small grains plant

Silage making reduce 40-60% of nitrate level.

BarleyCereal crop

Annual fodder

Rabbi fodder

Temperate climate

High in fiber and protein

ContinueBalanced in protein, fat and energy

Full of essential nutrients, minerals and vitamins

Rich in enzymes

Low acid content

It is ranked 4th in term of quantity production.

Morphologyleaves are 1.512.0 mm wide and up to 200 mm long

Barley grass grows to about 450 mm in height.

Barley may have bearded heads or be beardless. Bearded barley has a slender bristle about three inches long, called an "awn," attached to each seed. Beardless varieties are generally preferred for forage,

BenefitsReduced occurrence of digestive diseases, such as colic and bloatStimulated immune systemNaturally balanced with essential nutrientsHigh in fiber, energy and proteinRich in enzymesLow acid contentHighly digestible

Top producing countriescountriesMillion of metric tonsRussia15.4Germany10.3France10.3Canada10.2World Total144.8

Nutritional profileMoisture 80.2%Dry Matter 19.8%Crude Protein 13.3%Crude Fiber 21.9% NFE 47.7Fat (EE) 3.6%Ash 13.5%

Barley grass contains a number of vitamins, including vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, folic acid and vitamins C and E. It also contains phosphorous,vitamin K and calcium.Each lb of barley fodder is equivalent nutritionally to 6.6 lbs of lucerne.