oat ( avena satava)
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Class No 651Subject : Forage and fodder productionTopic: Oat ( Avena sativa L) Department : AgronomyAgriculture University Peshawar, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan.Syed Junaid Ahmad
Scientific classificationCommon name: OatOat: (Avena sativa)Other names: Javi, jai,jodarKingdom : PlantaeOrder : PolaesFamily : PoaceaeGenus AvenaSpecies: A.sativaBinomial name : Avena sativa L
IntroductionThe area under various fodder crops in the country is estimated as 2.312million hectares and annual fodder production 51.925 million ton. The average fodder production is 22.5 tons per hectare (ha-1) which is as well low to meet even half of the preservation ration of 154.6 million heads of livestock in the country. In Pakistan, very little work on the development of fodder oat varieties has been undertaken. Oat production in Pakistan 60-80 tons per hac-1.Oats is an important winter cereal fodder grown widely for forage production. It can be cut and fed to animals or can be grazed; it can also be preserved in the form of hay or silage. Oats grown in mixture with berseem give an early cut as well as providing protection to the young berseem seedlings during cold temperatures. It gives higher fodder yields than other winter cereals such as wheat and barley. Similarly, it is more palatable than wheat and barley because of the high number of leaves and soft stems.
Top Ten Oat Producer 2013-14Thousand Metric TonsRussia4,027Canada 2,680Poland1,439Finland1,159Australia1,050United states929Spain799United kingdom784Sweden776Germany668World Total20,723
Oat is an important winter fodder under irrigated conditions either as sole crop, or sown together with barseem. Oat is a single-cut crop and supplies fodder over a shorter period than does berseem. The oat plant contains Protein 9.23%, Fat 3.56%, Fiber 30.44%,Calcium 0.82% and phosphorus 0.27%.The leaves and grain are high in carotene and carbohydrates. Oat provide nutrious fodder in the dry month of May, and are relished by all animals, particularly horses and mules. When mixed with barseem, Oat provide balance feed to milk animals.Economic importance
For early fodder production both in the plain areas and mountainous areas best planting time is 20th September- October. Fodder will be available in November- December. However, late planting can continue till December but fodder production will start in March.
Seed bed preparation
Prepare fine seed bed by 2-3 ploughings and smoothing/ leveling with planking or appropriate implement.Sowing method
Line sowing 30 cm apart is preferred or broad cast.SoilAll types of soil but prefers clay and loamy soils.
Fertilizer 15-20 tons/ha farmyard manure before land preparation. One bag of 50 kgs ,DAP +one bag urea at sowing and half bag urea/ha. after every cutting.IrrigationFirst irrigation 20 days after sowing and subsequent irrigations depend ontemperature and weather.DiseasesMainly aphids and leaf hoppers (jassids) attack the crop. In case of heavy infestation on seed crop, use an appropriate chemical spray.Varieties/cultivars 1= Kompasberg2= Sederberg3= Overberg4= Heros5= SSH 4056= SSH 4917= Pallinup 8=PD2 LV65, 9=Swan, 10=Avon 11=S-81, 12=Cuscade, 13=Scott, 14=Tibour
Cutting stage/ Time of HarvestingCutting stage mainly determines the ultimate fodder yields and its quality. With theincrease in age, maturity, or cutting stage, nutritive value and palatability of theharvested fodder decreases. To obtain the best compromise between fodder yield and quality, the crop should be harvested at late vegetative stage. At this stageregeneration, palatability, and quality is higher than at 50 % or 100 % heading andalso 1-2 extra cuttings and hence more fodder can be obtained.Cutting heightThe crop should always be harvested at least 4 inches from the ground level to facilitate quick regrowth.YieldThe approved cultivars have a fodder yield potential of 75-80 kg t/ha, there seed yield varies from 1-2 t/ha.